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Galatz


Postal network    EN

Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN

During the 18th century, the postal service, limited to the carriage of official mail, was improved by the Phanariote princes who relied on it to spread the information which many times proved vital during the complicated political circumstances of the area. The route from Galaţi to Iaşi, via Bârlad, was extremely important and well provided with postal stations and horses. The service was administered by the central authorities, but its expenses were covered at a local level. In certain periods the postal system was operated by private entrepreneurs who received subsidies from the central government, which also appointed the head of the service[1].

During the Russian military occupation of 1828–1834 the postal service was once more leased to private enterprisers, the contract being granted in Moldavia to Nicolae Privileghie in 1830. The “Organic Statutes” introduced a modern organisation of this service[2], which besides mail also carried private and public money. By the middle of the century the institution was greatly improved and the transport of official mail between county capitals was carefully regulated. A modern statute was introduced in 1857, when the service was organised by western standards, with post boxes, postal stamps, trained postmen, etc. However, it was limited to the carriage of domestic correspondence and parcels, as the Austrians and Russians had parallel postal services, established with the authorisation of the Sublime Porte. A new postal law was introduced in 1865, together with a regulation of tariffs for mail and telegraph, as the two institutions had a common direction. By conventions concluded in the next decade with Austria and Russia, the Romanian postal service also undertook the carriage of international mail. The tables below show the great development of this service during late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The post office in Galaţi was one of the oldest and most important branches in Romania. By the end of the 19th century there existed 40 mail boxes placed in different areas of the city, the correspondence being collected four times a day by two postal carts[3].

Table 4.2.5.1_1

Incomes of the postal–telegraph office of Galaţi, 1887–1891[4]

Year

Post

Telegraph

Total

National income

1887–1888

177,323

152,673

329,996

3,644,640

1888–1889

181,987

168,067

350,055

3,780,480

1889–1890

203,748

196,785

400,553

5,100,000

1890–1891

201,979

187,576

389,555

5,300,000

In 1889–1890, 134,031 lei were charged for postal stamps, and the rest came from taxes on the delivery of money, parcels and orders. In the same year, the telegraph–postal office of Galaţi had total expenses amounting to 125,404 lei[5]. A Palace of the Post Office was built in 1906–1908 to host post, telegraph and telephone services, as well as the postmaster’s residence[6].

Picture 4.2.5.1_1 The Palace of the Post Office (contemporary picture)
Source: http://www.galati.djc.ro

Table 4.2.5.1_2

Domestic correspondence sent, by categories of objects, 1867–1915[7]

Year

Total

Letters

Postcards

Prints and other objects

Tax free

Registered correspondence

1867

1,390

859

-

-

531

-

1868

1,290

789

-

-

501

-

1869

1,909

1,375

-

-

534

-

1870

2,320

1,820

-

-

500

-

1871

2,725

2,130

-

-

595

-

1872

3,092

2,399

-

-

693

-

1874

4,726

2,155

78

1,355

1,013

125

1875

5,125

2,281

101

1,647

956

140

1876

4,515

2,278

130

1,203

765

139

1877

8,104

3,223

190

3,487

955

249

1878

9,575

4,245

348

3,783

1,010

189

1879

6,441

3,205

628

1,292

1,097

219

1880

8,227

3,576

686

1,782

1,961

222

1881

9,007

4,104

700

2,112

1,847

244

1882

9,801

4,394

946

2,177

1,915

369

1883

10,267

4,707

995

2,199

1,985

381

1884

10,336

4,932

1,057

2,574

1,493

280

1885

12,816

5,601

1,295

3,370

2,052

498

1886

13,217

5,845

1,315

3,426

2,130

501

1887

13,575

6,021

1,386

3,351

2,211

606

1888

14,085

5,713

2,023

2,852

2,908

589

1889

14,944

6,478

1,901

3,170

2,798

597

1890

15,053

6,540

2,188

3,285

2,430

610

1891

17,295

7,438

2,505

3,691

2,697

964

1892

17,767

7,476

2,812

3,709

2,710

1,060

1893

22,722

7,870

6,986

3,895

2,845

1,126

1894

29,675

8,675

6,181

11,248

2,861

710

1895

41,728

8,271

6,808

22,412

3,512

725

1896

44,129

8,217

7,154

23,662

4,312

784

1897

55,622

10,276

12,259

26,208

6,012

867

1898

50,573

10,084

8,944

23,850

6,734

961

1899

55,512

10,372

8,273

29,221

6,452

1,194

1900

47,105

9,754

8,799

23,171

4,493

888

1901

43,080

9,062

9,941

18,166

5,142

769

1902

57,592

12,058

14,148

25,485

5,086

815

1903

60,678

12,520

15,270

25,181

6,623

1,084

1904

76,844

14,552

18,232

35,739

7,227

1,094

1905

192,399

14,688

20,598

147,619

8,206

1,288

1906

194,556

16,150

25,096

139,559

12,412

1,339

1907

121,266

15,911

26,461

69,980

7,152

1,762

1908

132,347

20,138

20,580

70,793

10,656

2,180

1909

126,096

16,436

26,567

68,719

12,129

2,245

1910

137,656

19,835

29,672

74,148

11,998

2,003

1911

140,389

19,491

32,682

72,846

13,187

2,183

1912

149,386

23,666

35,787

74,156

12,943

2,834

1913

171,471

27,367

38,671

88,608

15,128

1,697

1914

133,333

24,141

32,885

58,458

14,755

3,094

1915

153,626

26,133

32,082

77,072

15,628

2,711

Table 4.2.5.1_3

External correspondence sent, by categories of objects, 1872–1915[8]

Year

Total

Simple correspondence

Registered correspondence

Letters

Postcards

Prints and other objects

1872

709

516

-

-

193

1874

870

638

-

141

91

1875

1,167

900

-

163

104

1876

1,438

1,081

36

233

88

1877

2,099

1,654

53

278

114

1878

2,378

1,740

67

430

141

1879

929

543

42

226

118

1880

1,396

833

67

299

197

1881

2,160

1,248

165

470

277

1882

2,503

1,390

216

550

347

1883

2,644

1,591

193

536

324

1884

2,558

1,516

188

538

316

1885

2,488

1,483

200

603

202

1886

2,500

1,479

204

611

206

1887

2,540

1,497

204

631

208

1888

4,867

2,493

856

1,169

349

1889

4,562

2,379

792

1,044

347

1890

4,758

2,506

816

1,072

361

1891

5,626

2,905

997

1,307

417

1892

6,196

3,020

1,233

1,429

514

1893

6,509

3,170

1,294

1,500

545

1894

4,708

2,484

900

932

392

1895

5,146

2,796

936

1,036

378

1896

5,661

2,787

1,133

1,348

393

1897

6,153

3,072

1,156

1,461

464

1898

6,623

3,666

1,124

1,250

583

1899

7,082

3,986

1,214

1,405

477

1900

6,972

3,561

1,643

1,304

464

1901

7,812

3,945

1,939

1,497

431

1902

8,829

3,845

2,550

2,035

399

1903

12,412

5,497

3,780

2,701

434

1904

10,673

4,711

3,438

2,099

425

1905

12,088

5,661

3,675

2,273

479

1906

11,826

4,394

4,177

2,606

649

1907

11,365

4,514

3,846

2,351

654

1908

10,310

4,356

3,527

1,825

602

1909

9,046

3,879

2,716

1,834

617

1910

10,696

4,726

3,227

2,079

664

1911

16,532

7,723

4,913

3,188

708

1912

17,232

8,248

4,792

3,473

719

1913

13,779

5,920

4,406

2,599

854

1914

13,632

7,019

5,049

1,036

528

1915

7,053

2,662

3,152

837

402

Table 4.2.5.1_4

External correspondence received, by categories of objects, 1872–1915

Year

Total

Letters

Postcards

Prints and objects

Registered correspondence

1872

674

599

-

-

75

1874

1,519

786

-

654

79

1875

1,665

861

-

721

83

1876

1,657

846

16

714

81

1877

1,671

725

36

820

90

1878

2,131

1,021

38

955

117

1879

1,697

744

54

819

80

1880

2,352

1,129

80

1,017

126

1881

3,104

1,751

97

1,100

156

1882

3,011

1,489

108

1,234

180

1883

3,163

1,528

112

1,330

193

1884

3,122

1,496

111

1,324

191

1885

2,945

1,361

169

1,250

165

1886

2,960

1,371

168

1,258

163

1887

3,052

1,440

172

1,273

167

1888

5,312

2,248

569

2,115

380

1889

5,121

2,082

612

2,038

389

1890

6,122

2,313

935

2,383

491

1891

6,657

2,297

1,040

2,775

545

1892

7,182

2,742

1,055

2,822

563

1893

7,536

2,878

1,103

2,963

592

1894

6,760

3,019

1,095

2,314

332

1895

6,522

2,794

698

2,716

314

1896

8,110

3,293

845

3,622

350

1897

8,144

3,381

971

3,354

438

1898

7,998

3,589

1,083

2,849

477

1899

8,264

4,402

1,471

1,909

482

1900

9,761

4,297

1,622

3,453

389

1901

7,283

2,878

1,514

2,468

423

1902

11,076

5,121

2,213

3,397

345

1903

15,162

6,096

2,882

5,836

348

1904

11,263

4,623

2,585

3,675

380

1905

13,501

5,521

3,272

4,345

363

1906

15,299

6,789

3,823

4,275

412

1907

12,571

5,147

3,065

3,922

437

1908

13,181

5,037

3,769

3,919

456

1909

12,345

4,887

2,684

4,298

476

1910

13,250

5,249

2,860

4,661

480

1911

15,223

6,630

2,914

4,957

722

1912

15,388

6,915

3,005

4,493

975

1913

15,822

6,282

3,570

5,235

735

1914

14,284

6,597

5,058

2,092

537

1915

9,749

3,993

2,513

2,840

403

Table 4.2.5.1_5

Internal and external postal orders, 1871–1915[9]

Year

Internal orders

External orders

Issued

Issued

Received

Number

Value

Number

Value

Number

Value

Thousands

Thousand lei

Thousands

Thousand lei

Thousands

Thousand lei

1871

0,2

18

-

-

-

-

1872

1,7

80

-

-

-

-

1873

2,4

141

-

-

-

-

1874

3,4

174

-

-

-

-

1875

2,6

122

-

-

-

-

1876

1,9

89

-

-

-

-

1877

3,1

153

-

-

-

-

1878

2,7

182

       

1879

1,3

95

3,5

504

0,5

49

1880

7,7

564

9

1,255

1,2

121

1881

24

1,426

13

1,765

1,4

124

1882

72

3,822

19

2,294

2,2

171

1883

104

5,414

22

2,424

3,1

242

 

1884

127

6,519

22

2,280

3,9

270

 

1885

142

7,142

22

2,290

4,3

317

 

1886

152

8,100

23

2,445

5,0

359

 

1887

174

9,033

27

2,625

6,8

483

 

1888

188

9,759

34

2,747

8,1

602

 

1889

211

11,215

52

3,957

10, 4

805

 

1890

253

12,499

66

4,873

13

951

 

1891

250

14,882

87

6,644

15

998

 

1892

283

14,408

119

9,939

17

1,163

 

1893

307

15,191

160

11,543

19

1,399

 

1894

395

17,561

198

12,830

23

1,384

 

1895

481

20,998

239

14,811

25

1,550

 

1896

516

22,686

258

15,258

27

1,052

 

1897

557

26,750

283

10,129

31

1,879

 

1898

714

27,939

297

17,501

32

2,128

 

1899

886

25,127

244

17,221

31

1,582

 

1900

664

27,194

285

15,779

57

2,910

 

1901

776

28,028

316

16,243

56

3,289

 

1902

861

29,256

360

16,019

61

3,506

 

1903

941

32,343

330

13,634

69

3,854

 

1904

936

31,759

318

13,415

70

3,769

 

1905

1,106

39,516

394

20,039

74

4,159

 

1906

1,146

43,593

375

27,919

79

4,546

 

1907

1,396

51,476

372

31,676

78

4,720

 

1908

1,260

56,496

351

26,698

77

4,255

 

1909

1,579

61,738

377

20,161

82

5,083

 

1910

1,692

67,428

389

22,039

83

5,184

 

1911

1,729

68,386

392

21,782

89

5,584

 

1912

1,821

78,838

411

24,490

86

5,608

 

1913

1,944

81,305

416

30,952

98

5,006

 

1914

1,915

99,454

265

18,305

52

3,838

 

1915

1,058

80,322

27

3,011

24

1,413

 
                         

Table 4.2.5.1_6

Postal staff, by categories, 1888-1915[10]

Year

Total

Higher staff

Lower staff

Postmen, postal agents

1888

1,474

727

747

-

1889

1,474

727

747

-

1890

2,333

760

794

779

1891

2,935

761

998

1,176

1892

4,912

791

1,049

3,072

1893

5,877

1025

1,262

3,590

1894

6,170

1149

1,395

3,626

1895

6,284

1274

1,405

3,605

1896

6,071

1287

1,438

3,346

1897

6,245

1351

1,443

3,451

1898

6,457

1517

1,483

3,457

1899

7,076

1441

1,481

4,154

1900

6,711

1433

1,491

3,787

1901

6,922

1,408

1,542

3,972

1902

6,886

1,413

1,560

3,913

1903

6,956

1,441

1,602

3,913

1904

6,954

1,442

1,604

3,908

1905

7,179

1,475

1,788

3,916

1906

7,459

1,731

1,855

3,873

1907

8,326

1,944

1,844

4,538

1908

8,612

2,399

2,055

4,158

1909

8,697

2,391

2,199

4,107

1910

8,713

2,406

2,206

4,101

1911

8,934

2,411

2,594

3,929

1912

9,187

2,406

2,743

4,008

1913

9,968

2,685

3,016

4,267

1914

9,584

2,617

2,607

4,360

1915

9,675

2,635

2,675

4,365

 


[1] Enciclopedia României, vol. IV, Economia naţională. Circulaţie, distribuţie şi consum, edited by Dimitrie Gusti at alii(Bucharest: Imprimeria Naţională, 1943), 139–140; Andrei Oţetea, Pătrunderea comerţului românesc în circuitul internaţional (în perioada de trecere de la feudalism la capitalism) (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, 1977), 144–152.

[2] Tezaur documentar gălăţean, edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988), 72, 125; Paul Păltănea, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918, second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008), vol. II, 41–42, 44, 132.

[3] Moise N. Pacu, Cartea judeţului Covurluiu. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice, (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891), 273–275.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Valentin Bodea, Monumente istorice şi de arhitectură din oraşul Galaţi din a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea – prima jumătate a secolului al XX-lea (Galaţi: Pax Aura Mundi, 2011), vol. 2, 83–92.

[7] Victor Axenciuc, Evoluţia economică a României. Cercetări statistico–istorice, 1859–1947, vol. I, Industria (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 1992), 368–369 (Table 339: Domestic correspondence sent, by categories of objects, during the period 1867–1938).

[8] Ibid., 370–371 (Table 340: External postal correspondence sent, by categories of objects, during the period 1872–1938).

[9] Ibid., 372–373 (Table 342: Postal orders, internal and external, during the period 1871–1944).

[10] Ibid., 376–377 (Table 346: Postal staff, by categories, during the period 1888–1915).


References

Websites:

Archival sources:

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Primăria oraşului Galaţi (The Municipality of Galaţi), files starting with 1831.

Bibliography:

Axenciuc, Victor, Evoluţia economică a României. Cercetări statistico–istorice, 1859–1947, vol. I, Industria [Romania’s Economic Evolution. Statistical–Historical Researches, 1859–1947, vol. I, The Industry] (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 1992).

Bodea, Valentin, Monumente istorice şi de arhitectură din oraşul Galaţi din a doua jumătate a secolului al XIX-lea – prima jumătate a secolului al XX-lea [Historical and Architectural Monuments from the City of Galaţi in the Second Half of the 19th – early 20th Centuries], vol. 2 (Galaţi: Pax Aura Mundi, 2011).

Enciclopedia României, vol. IV, Economia naţională. Circulaţie, distribuţie şi consum [Romania’s Encyclopedia, vol. IV, The National Economy. Circulation, Distribution and Consumption], edited by Dimitrie Gusti at alii(Bucharest: Imprimeria Naţională, 1943).

Oţetea, Andrei, Pătrunderea comerţului românesc în circuitul internaţional (în perioada de trecere de la feudalism la capitalism) [The Coming of the Romanian Trade in the International Circuit (During the Period from Feudalism to Capitalism] (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, 1977).

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Păltănea, Paul, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918 [The History of Galaţi from Its Beginnings to 1918], second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008).

Tezaur documentar gălăţean [Tresure of Documents on Galaţi], edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988).


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