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Galatz


History    EN

Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN

Brief presentation of the educational system in the Romanian Principalities / Romania (1832–1914)

The modern organisation of the educational system started in Wallachia and Moldavia after the introduction of the “Organic Statutes”, the “constitutions” imposed in 1831–1832 during the Russian occupation of the two provinces. Educational regulations were drafted in Bucharest in 1833 and in Jassy in 1834, establishing a complex network of primary, secondary, professional and superior schools that were to provide education in the national language. A new law was introduced in 1850, but the significant changes were possible only a decade later, in 1864, when Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza promoted the first coherent and detailed educational reform. Instruction was divided into three levels: primary, secondary and superior. Primary education was free and compulsory for all children, so public schools were soon opened all over Romania. It was to last for four years, but only the first three had to be compulsorily attended. Secondary education was provided in several types of schools (for boys – lyceums, gymnasiums, real schools, schools of beautiful arts, professional schools; for girls – secondary schools) and was to last for a maximum of seven years (lyceum), with the gymnasium (four years) being considered as its first phase. For girls, secondary education was to last for five years. As for higher education, it was limited to the universities in Bucharest and Jassy. The central authorities paid the expenses with the salaries of the teaching and administrative staff, whereas material costs (housing, furniture, heating, etc) were to be covered by the local authorities. It was a very important educational reform, but its success was rather theoretical, as financial shortages prevented its being immediately implemented. The establishment of secondary schools in major towns and cities was slow, whereas continuous political debates and local rivalries also affected its proper application.

In 1893 and 1896, during the terms of Take Ionescu and Petru Poni as ministers, new laws reorganised primary education, allowing village children, involved in agricultural works, to complete school within five years.

The second major educational reform of the modern age was promoted by Spiru Haret in 1898–1899. For boys, secondary education was to last for eight years, a period divided into two cycles of four years, the first called gymnasium or lower lyceum, the second lyceum or high school. It was to offer a common curriculum for all pupils, but also different educational content by sections: classical, real and modern. For girls, secondary education of the first grade lasted for five years and of the second grade for four more years. Professional schools were also organised for those pupils who wanted to follow different crafts. It was divided into agricultural, sylvan, of handicrafts, and commercial.

History of public schools in Galaţi

The beginnings of public education at Galaţi date back to the second half of the 18th century, when on 13 August 1765 Prince Alexandru I. Ghica established an institution called “The Greek School of Mavromol” (Şcoala elinească de la Mavromol)[1]. In 1803, following Constantin Moruzi’s order, a decision was taken to organise “other schools of Greek and Moldavian languages in the boroughs of Focşani, Bârlad, Galaţi, and Kishinev”[2].

With the application of the “Organic Statutes”, Galaţi was among the six Moldavian municipalities in which state schools were founded[3]. The first primary school was inaugurated on 8 November 1832 under the name of “school for beginners”. At first, it was hosted in the rooms of a local church with one class of 44 pupils, to whom teacher Toma Giuşcă taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, catechism and basic useful knowledge[4]. Its own building was completed in 1853, but it was thereafter demolished and the new headquarters was inaugurated in 1896[5]. A military school for the education of recruits was established in 1844 and a new “real school” with courses in trade and the study of Greek and Italian was opened in 1846, with the aim of encouraging commercial education. However, most of the foreigners and the wealthy Moldavians sent their children to private pensions and schools[6]. Some of the most celebrated were those directed by J. Sachetti, Ştefănachi Spiridon, Ion Cumbari, etc. According to a source, in 1839 there were 12 private schools in the county of Covurlui, most of them probably in its capital city, Galaţi[7].

A new phase in the development of primary education is visible in the late 1850s and the 1860s, especially after the application of the educational law of 1864. By 1866 there were six primary schools for boys throughout the city, most of them hosted in improper rented buildings, provided with primitive teaching facilities. More primary schools were established in the 1880s in the suburbs with a growing population. Before the First World War there were 11 public primary schools for boys and as many for girls, most of them provided with their own buildings erected by the municipality, also with the support of different benefactors[8].

Regarding secondary education, after a commercial school had had a discontinuous existence, the “Alexandru Ioan I” Commercial School was inaugurated on 26 October 1864, under the direction of C. Troteanu[9]. It underwent several transformations in the following decades, and since early 20th century was turned into a commercial high school, also supported by the local Chamber of Commerce. Its own building was completed only in the interwar period[10].

The Gymnasium for Boys (later named “Vasile Alecsandri”) was inaugurated on 26 November 1867 under the direction of Ion Cetăţianu, and was turned into a high school starting with 1887, thanks to the efforts of MP V. A. Urechia[11]. It was an extremely serious institution, provided in 1890 with a appropriate building in central Galaţi.

The Craftsmanship School, founded by the county in 1872 at Târgu Bujor, for the professional training of young Romanian students, was transferred to Galaţi in 1875. The school had its own building, completed by 1893, and was provided with workshops for wheelwrights, carpenters, blacksmiths, etc[12].

The Secondary School for Girls (first grade) was inaugurated in October 1878, and Augusta Orghidan, teacher of philosophy and pedagogy, was appointed its headmistress[13]. In 1893, due to budgetary reasons, the conservative government turned it into a professional school for girls. “Negroponte Professional School” provided practical training with specialisations in drapery, embroidery or the manufacturing of artificial flowers, and had about around 250 students and 30 teachers and masters[14].

The Teacher Training School was founded in 1877 at Ismail and was moved to Galaţi in 1878, when Romania ceded Southern Bessarabia to Russia. The classes started with six teachers: Gr. Petrovanu (history and geography), C. Bărbescu (natural sciences and mathematics), Ion Cotea (Romanian language), Theodor Pavel (drawing and calligraphy), C. Cuclin (music), and I. Titorian (gymnastics)[15]. Its new building was begun in 1898 and was inaugurated in March 1902, in the presence of Minister Spiru Haret. Due to budgetary reasons and political disputes, it was closed in 1905 and reopened two years later[16]. The Teacher Training School for Girls was inaugurated in October 1914, with Maria Longinescu as headmistress[17].

“St. Andrew” Theological Seminary was founded in 1864 and carried out its activities at Ismail until 1878, when it was transferred to Galaţi. This school was also affected by financial shortages, and was closed in 1903. The seminary reopened in October 1908, thanks to the efforts of Bishop Pimen Georgescu and of Minister Haret[18].

By the initiative of several teachers, there were founded several associations (such as the “Society for the Education of the Romanian People”, “The Holy Emperors Cultural House”, “The Society for the Support of the Schools for Adults” ) that organised courses of basic education for adults in several suburbs of the city[19].

During the second half of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century, a large number of private schools were functional at Galaţi and provided education both in Romanian and foreign languages. Among the most prestigious non-confessional Greek schools a special mention deserves the institute of Atanasie Venieris, established in 1857, which in the following decades provided both primary and secondary education and which came to have among its teaching staff personalities such as the Byzantinologists Nicolae G. Dosios and Demostene Russo. A Greek commercial institute was founded in 1858 and two years later it was directed by Consul Ştefan Ghionis. Another school was headed by M. O. Mitropoulos[20]. A “Greek-French” Lyceum was founded in 1880 by Urbain Chousserie, and “The Zappion Lyceum” was established in 1881 by Ioan Tetzis. Numerous other schools provided education for Bulgarian, Armenian or Jewish pupils, institutions which will mentioned in the template for confessional schools. Boarding schools for Romanian students were as numerous, such as “Radu Institute”, “Negri Institute”, the “Romanian Institute for Damsels”, etc.[21].

Picture 3.4.1.1_1 “Vasile Alecsandri” High School (1920s)
Source: www.bvau.ro

Picture 3.4.1.1_2 “Costache Negri” High School (about 1933)
Source: www.bvau.ro

Picture 3.3.4.1_3 The Craftmanship School (about 1903)
Source: www.bvau.ro


[1] Moise N. Pacu, Cartea judeţului Covurluiu. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice, (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891), 149; Ioan Brezeanu, Gh. S. Ştefănescu, Şcoala gălăţeană 1765–1948 (Galaţi: Editura pentru Literatură şi Artă Geneze, 1996), 19; Paul Păltănea, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918, second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008), vol. I, 389–390.

[2] Brezeanu, Ştefănescu, Şcoala, 19; Păltănea, I, 390.

[3] Brezeanu, Galaţii (monografie) (Bucharest: Editura Sport Turism, 1980), 178.

[4] Brezeanu, Ştefănescu, Şcoala, 26.

[5] Păltănea, Istoria, I, 279; II, 392–393, 399.

[6] Ibid., I, 402, 409; II, 283.

[7] Ibid., I, 407–408; also see N. Cartojan, “Pensionatele franceze din Moldova în prima jumătate a veacului al XIX-lea”, Omagiu lui Ramiro Ortiz (Bucharest: Tipografia Bucovina, 1929), 71–72.

[8] Pacu, Cartea, 157; Brezeanu, Ştefănescu, Şcoala, 37–40; Păltănea, Istoria, 274–275; references in Raport general asupra mişcării populaţiei, a stării sănătăţii publice şi altor lucrări ale Consiliului de Igienă din urbea Galaţi săvârşite in cursul anului 1885 (Galaţi: s.e., 1886); Ioan I. Pralea, Raport general asupra situaţiunei învăţământului primar urban, rural şi particular din judeţul Covurlui pe anul şcolar 1908–1909 (Galaţi: Tipografia nouă Teodor Dimitriade, 1909).

[9] Păltănea, Istoria, II, 284; More details in Gh. Lăzărescu, Şcoala Comercială din Galaţi: Liceul Comercial “Alexandru Ioan I. Cuza” de la înfiiaţare până în prezent, 1864–1940 (Galaţi: Institutul de Arte Grafice Moldova, 1940); Gh. V. Ceapă, N. Maftei, I. Costeanu, Monografia Grupului Şcolar “Alexandru Ioan Cuza" (Galaţi: s.e., 1972) and Ioan Brezeanu, Liceul “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” – Galaţi, 1864–1998 (Bucharest: Editura Naţional, 1998).

[10] Păltănea, Istoria, II, 288.

[11] Alexandru Nicolescu, Primii 60 de ani de activitate ai Liceului „V. Alecsandri” din Galaţi (Galaţi: Tipografia Lumina, 1928); Gh. V. Chiricuţă, D. D. Şoitu, L Bourceanu, Monografia Liceului “Vasile Alecsandri” Galaţi, 1867–1967 (Galaţi: Liceul Vasile Alecsandri, 1967); În memoria lui Ion Cetăţianu primul profesor şi director al liceului din Galaţi (Galaţi: Tipo–Lito Antoniady, 1898), 7–18; Păltănea, Istoria, II, 290–293.

[12] Munteanu–Bârlad, N. Galaţii (Galaţi: Societate de Editură Ştiinţifică–Culturală, 1927), 74 (data on schools at 71–82); Păltănea, Istoria, II, 303–304.

[13] Ibid., 304–306; Teodor Codreanu, Albumul Galaţilor (Galaţi, Tipografia Bucovina, 1935–1936), 89.

[14] Păltănea, Istoria, II, 308.

[15] Ibid., 294.

[16] Ibid., 295–296.

[17] Ibid., 308–309.

[18] Ibid., 297–298.

[19] Ibid., 282.

[20] Ibid., 310.

[21] Ibid., 311–313.


References

Web sites:

Official site of the “V. A. Urechia” Library

www.bvau.ro

Archival sources:

Most of the files mentioned below consist only in school documents are not given for research. The data is provided on the basis of the inventories of these archival funds.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Primăria oraşului Galaţi (The Municipality of Galaţi), files starting with 1831.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Liceul “Mihail Kogălniceanu” (“Mihail Kogălniceanu” High School), files starting with 1883 (36 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Colegiul Naţional “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” (“Al. I. Cuza” National High School), files starting with 1864 (51 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală Nr. 15 “Elena Cuza” (“Elena Cuza” No. 15 General School), files starting with 1896 (6 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Normală “Costache Negri” (“Costache Negri” Teacher Training School), files starting with 1877 (55 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Normală de Fete “Regina Elisabeta” (“Regina Elisabeta” Pedagogical High School for Girls), files starting with 1914.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Primară de Fete Nr. 1 (Primary School for Girls No. 1), files starting with 1859 (57 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Profesională de Fete “Negropontes” (“Negropontes” Professional School for Girls), files starting with 1893 (49 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Colegiul Naţional “Vasile Alecsandri” (“Vasile Alecsandri” National High School), files starting with 1867 (165 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Grupul Şcolar Traian (“Traian” Professional School), files starting with 1876 (136 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala de 7 ani nr. 8 Mixtă Galaţi (No. 8 Mixed School of 7 Years), files starting with 1888 (37 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala de 8 ani nr. 5 Mixtă Galaţi (No. 5 Mixed School of 8 Years), files starting with 1874.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala de 8 ani nr. 6 Mixtă Galaţi (No. 6 Mixed School of 8 Years), files starting with 1894.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala de Agenţi Sanitari Galaţi (The School of Sanitary Agents), 1 file for 1912.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala de Băieţi nr. 2 Galaţi (The School for Boys No. 2), files starting with 1863 (204 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Elementară de Băieţi nr. 5 Galaţi (The Elementary School for Boys No. 5), files starting with 1900 (7 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Elementară de Băieţi nr. 9 Galaţi (The Elementary School for Boys No. 9), files starting with 1905 (6 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Elementară de Fete nr. 3 Galaţi (The Elementary School for Girls No. 3), files starting with 1873 (2 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Elementară de Fete nr. 6 Galaţi (The Elementary School for Girls No. 6), files starting with 1887 (26 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 20 “Traian” Galaţi (“Traian” No. 20 General School), 1 file for 1906.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 24 Galaţi (General School no. 24), files starting with 1866.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 4 Galaţi (General School no. 4), files starting with 1904 (6 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 14 Galaţi (General School no. 14), files starting with 1889 (43 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 19 Galaţi (General School no. 19), files starting with 1866.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 23 Galaţi (General School no. 23), files starting with 1866.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Generală nr. 7 “Constantin Brâncoveanu” Galaţi (General School no. 7 “Constantin Brâncoveanu”), files starting with 1898 (20 files).

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Mixtă nr. 10 Galaţi (Mixed School no. 10), files starting with 1899.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Şcoala Profesională “Iulia Haşdeu” Galaţi (“Iulia Haşdeu” Professional School), 1 file for 1907.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Inspectoratul Şcolar Regional Galaţi (The Galaţi Regional School Inspectorate), files starting with 1894.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Comitetul Şcolar al Municipiului Galaţi (The School Committee of Galaţi), files starting with 1881.

Bibliography:

Anuarul Şcoalei Normale “C. Negri” din Galaţi, 1909–1910 [The Yearbook of the “C. Negri” Teacher Training School of Galaţi, 1909–1910 (Galaţi: Tipografia Buciumul Român, 1910).

Brezeanu, Ioan, Liceul “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” – Galaţi, 1864–1998 [“Alexandru Ioan Cuza” High School Galaţi, 1864–1998] (Bucharest: Editura Naţional, 1998).

Brezeanu, Ioan, Ştefănescu, Gh. S., Şcoala gălăţeană 1765–1948 [The Schools of Galaţi] (Galaţi: Editura pentru Literatură şi Artă Geneze, 1996).

Ceapă, V., Maftei, N., Costeanu, I., Monografia Grupului Şcolar “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” [The Monograph of the “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Higi School] (Galaţi: s.e., 1972).

Chiricuţă, Gh. V., Şoitu, D. D., Bourceanu, L., Monografia Liceului “Vasile Alecsandri” Galaţi, 1867–1967 [The Monograph of the “Vasile Alecsandri” High School Galaţi, 1867–1967] (Galaţi: Liceul Vasile Alecsandri, 1967).

În memoria lui Ion Cetăţianu primul profesor şi director al liceului din Galaţi [In the Memory of Ion Cetăţianu, the First Teacher and Principal of the High School of Galaţi] (Galaţi: Tipo–Lito Antoniady, 1898).

Lăzărescu, Gh., Şcoala comercială din Galaţi. Liceul Comercial “Alexandru Ioan I Cuza” de la înfiinţare până în prezent, 1864–1940 [The Commercial School of Galaţi. The “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” Commercial High School from Its Establishment until Now, 1864–1940] (Galaţi: Institutul de Arte Grafice Moldova, 1940).

Munteanu–Bârlad, Gh. N., Galaţii (Galaţi: Societate de Editură Ştiinţifică–Culturală, 1927).

Nicolescu, Alexandru, Primii 60 de ani de activitate ai Liceului “V. Alecsandri” din Galaţi [The First 60 Years of Activity of the “V. Alecsandri High School of Galaţi] (Galaţi: Tipografia Lumina, 1928).

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Păltănea, Paul, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918 [The History of Galaţi from Its Beginnings to 1918], second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008).

Pralea, Ioan I., Raport general asupra situaţiunei învăţământului primar urban, rural şi particular din judeţul Covurlui pe anul şcolar 1908–1909 [General Report on the Situation of the Primary, Urban, Rural and Private Education in Covurlui County during the Year 1908–1909] (Galaţi: Tipografia Nou[ Teodor Dimitriade, 1909).

Ştefănescu, Gh. S, “Dascăli si animatori culturali gălăţeni” [Teachers and Cultural Animators from Galaţi], Carpica, 3 (1982), 125–132.

Ştefănescu, Gh. S., “Legăturile lui Spiru C. Haret cu Galaţiul” [The Relations of Spiru Haret with the City of Galaţi], Danubius, 8–9 (1979), 369–384.


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