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The consuls    EN

Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN

The juridical background related to the establishment of consulates in the Romanian Principalities / Romania varied greatly during the 19th century. With the two principalities considered as Ottoman autonomous provinces, consulates, vice–consulates or consular agencies were only opened with the agreement of the Sublime Porte, according to its capitulations with foreign powers.

The Treaty of Paris (1856) established the European Commission of the Danube (ECD), a body entrusted with regulating navigation along the maritime Danube. It consisted of representatives of the seven signatory powers and their successor states (Austria, France, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia and Turkey), and since 1878 of a Romanian delegate. During its early phase several powers had diplomats especially appointed as member of the Danube Commission, but by late 19th century it was customary to have the local consul also involved in this commission. Thus, the consular list should be completed with the terms of the representatives in the ECD. As there were gaps between the end of a consul’s term and the beginning of the next consul’s activity, the exact duration of their consular terms were approximated, and when unclear question marks have been used. The names of consuls vary in the Romanian and French transliteration.

The list below is based on information acquired by a scholar in the early 1890s from Romania’s Foreign Office, completed with other details from two other contemporary diplomatic sources[1].

Consuls

Name of consul

Country represented

Origin

Inclusive dates of public service

Iosif Manzoli de Corrolari (as staroste)

Austria[2]

1798–1825

Dimitrie Kossinsky (Russian vice-consul, gerant)

Austria

Russian

1825–1833

Dimitrie Atanaţcovici (as vice-consul and since 1835 consul)

Austria

1833–1839

Christian Guillaume Hüber

Austria

1839–1849

Albert Chiari

Austria

1849–1857

Carol Francisc Becke (gerant)

Austria

1857–1862

Alfred Kremer

Austria (Austria–Hungary)

1862–1871

Kwiatkowsky

Austria–Hungary

1871–1875

De Haan (since 1882 as general consul)

Austria–Hungary

1875–1882

Carol de Boleslawsky

Austria–Hungary

1882–1890

Carol Gsiller

Austria–Hungary

1890–(?)

Victor de Borhek

Austria–Hungary

1899(?)–(?)

B. H. Buisson (consul)

Belgium[3]

1838–1841

I. I. Manuah (vice-consul)

Belgium

1855–1857

I. H. Krausse (consul)

Belgium

1857–1859

D. Schippmann

Belgium

1859–1867

Simon Schwab (Schwable) (honorary consul)

Belgium

1867–(?)

Georges Verona

Belgium

1900(?)–(?)

Zencker (consul)

Denmark[4]

1853–1857

Th. Fickenscher (gerant)

Denmark

1856–1858

I. Hampern (consul)

Denmark

1858–1865

M. Abramovici

Denmark

1865–1867

P. Ackatoz

Denmark

1867

M. Abramovici

Denmark

1867–1876

August Dall’Orso

Denmark

1876–1902(?)

Violier (consular agent)

France[5]

1838–1840

Charles Cunningham, English vice-consul (gerant)

France

1840–1847

Duclos (consular agent)

France

1847–1852

Gardera (consul)

France

1852–1855

De Bronsard

France

1855–1857

F. Steyert

France

1857–1859

E. Bouillot

France

1859–1860

L. Vermot

France

1860–1863

V. Castaign (gerant)

France

1863–1865

D. Grosse (Gorsse)

France

1865–1868

H. Boyard

France

1868–1873

Alex. Duboul

France

1873–1880

Charles d’Haricourt

France

1880–1881

Laporte

France

1881–1882

Jules Ferdinand Coste

France

1882

Gaston Wiet

France

1882–1883

Camile Georges de Vaux

France

1883–1885

Gaston Wiet

France

1885–1900

Joseph Pollio

France

1900–1908

Henri André Arnould

France

1908–1914

Pepine Manzoli (vice-consul)

Great Britain[6]

1830?–1835

Gessi

Great Britain

1835–1836

Charles Cunningham (in 1860 as consul)

Great Britain

1836–1860

C. B. Ward

Great Britain

1860–1876

Percy Sanderson

Great Britain

1876–1894

Politos Xenof (vice-consul)

Greece[7]

1835–1842

I. Velisarie (provisional vice-consul)

Greece

1842

G. Atanasiad (vice-consul)

Greece

1842–1850

L. Argentis

Greece

1850–1851

S. Ghionis (honorary consul)

Greece

1851–1863

M. Evanghelidi (provisional gerant)

Greece

1863–1864

D. Geracari (consul)

Greece

1864

Ion Angamachis

Greece

1864–1866

N. Vioschi (ad-interim gerant)

Greece

1866–1867

N. Avaside (general consul)

Greece

1867–1868

N. G. Manolato (consul)

Greece

1868–1874

I. Polimede

Greece

1874

George Tsamados

Greece

1874–1880

Alex. Costis

Greece

1880–1881

I. Papacostopulo

Greece

1881

Iacob Contumas

Greece

1881–1882

Epaminondas Philon

Greece

1882–1884

Guillaume Fontanas

Greece

1884–1888

E. Antipas

Greece

1888–(?)

Dem. Kympritis

Greece

1896–1902(?)

Mehmet Vasfi Kessoglu, consular agent

Persia[8]

-

1906

Krauss (consul)

Prussia[9]

1837–1839

Carnieff (Russian consul, gerant)

Prussia

1839

Stürtz (gerant)

Prussia

1839–1842

Carol Schwartz (gerant)

Prussia

1842

Pascal Lamberti (consul)

Prussia

1842–1844

Eusebiu Wedecke

Prussia

1844–1850

König

Prussia

1850–1853

Meroni

Prussia

1853–1860

Blücher (consular agent, since 1861 vice-consul and since 1869 consul of the North German Confederation)

Prussia

1860–1876

Reitz (gerant)

Germany

1876–1877

Arendt (consul)

Germany

1877–1886

Frid de Aichberger

Germany

1886–1889

Baron Walter of Weigenheim

Germany

1889–1894(?)

M. Loehr

Germany

1894(?)–1902(?)

Schippmann

Hanseatic Cities

1859–1864

Blücher

Hanseatic Cities

1864–1869

Filip Trucki (vice-consul)

Sardinia[10]

1833–1838

Bartolomeo Geymet

Sardinia

1838–1841

Adolf Castenard

Sardinia

1841–1845

Francisc Mathieu

Sardinia

1845–1850

Stefan Berzolesc

Sardinia

1850–1853

I. Curpanetti

Sardinia

1853–1859

Cavaler Durio

Sardinia

1859

Luis Leardi (consul)

Italy

1859–1862

Carol Cataneo

Italy

1862–1863

Fr. I. Stella

Italy

1863

Laurent Vignale

Italy

1863–1866

Ferd. Scaglia

Italy

1866–1867

Castelli

Italy

1867–1868

Berio

Italy

1868–1873

Cesar Durando

Italy

1873–1877

Somariva

Italy

1877–1878

Simondetti

Italy

1878–1881

Nicola Revest

Italy

1881–1887

Geovani Paulo Riva

Italy

1887–1888

G. Pascal Corti

Italy

1888–1890

Guilio Tesi

Italy

1890–(?)

Nicolas Domenico Papplepore

Italy

(?)–(?)

Pascal Lamberti

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

1841–1853

I. Curpenetti

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

1853–1858

Paul Diclich

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

1858–1859

Sovetnic Arghiropulo (consular agent)

Russia[11]

(?)–1836

Sovetnic Machedin (provisional vice-consul)

Russia

1836

Carnieff (definitive vice-consul)

Russia

1836–1842

H. Cola (vice-consul, since 1845 consul)

Russia

1842–1856

A. Romanenco (gerant)

Russia

1856–1857

H. Cola, consul

Russia

1857–1861

Baron d’Offenberg

Russia

1861–1863

Lex

Russia

1863

P. Romanenco

Russia

1863

C. d’Amburger

Russia

1863–1864

Alexander Romanenco

Russia

1864–(?)

Nicolas Ladyjensky

Russia

1892–1902(?)

Omer Lufti Effendi

Turkey[12]

1877

Artim Effendi (consul)

Turkey

1879–1880

Dall’Orso (consul of Spain, gerant)

Turkey

1880

Damian Effendi (consul)

Turkey

1880–1882

Maxim Effendi Warthaliti

Turkey

1882–(?)

Azarian Effendi

Turkey

1890(?)–(?)

Carol Greiss (vice-consul)

Sweden–Norway[13]

(?)–1851

Pascal Lamberti (gerant)

Sweden–Norway

1851

L. Bertrant (gerant)

Sweden–Norway

1851–1852

Th. Mathieu (vice-consul and then consul)

Sweden–Norway

1852–1857

Louis Mendl (consul) Ludovic

Sweden–Norway

1861–1864

Ioan Ierinich (provisional consul)

Sweden–Norway

1864

Louis (Ludovic) Mendl (consul)

Sweden–Norway

1864–1889(?)

S. Mendl

Sweden–Norway

1896–1902(?)

Antoniu Vlasto (vice-consul)

The Netherlands[14]

1841–1850

S. Argenti

The Netherlands

1850–1856

Theodor Fikenscher

The Netherlands

1856–1859

Guillaume Küminel (gerant)

The Netherlands

1859

F. Salvag (provisional vice-consul)

The Netherlands

1859

G. S. Vlasto (vice-consul)

The Netherlands

1859–1876

M. Schmierer (vice-consul and since 1882 consul)

The Netherlands

1876–1885

Ludwig Leop. Schmierer

The Netherlands

1885–1902(?)

P. Foscolo

Spain[15]

1870–1887

Charles (Carol) Foscolo (gerant)

Spain

1887–(?)

Hans Rychner (honorary consul)

Switzerland[16]

1881–1906

E. d’Aujourd’hui

Switzerland

1907–1911

Negroponte (vice-consul)

USA[17]

(?)–1859

H. T. Romestetze (consul in Jassy)

USA

1859–1860

C. F. Langdon

USA

1860–1862

W. W. Thomas (consul at Galaţi)

USA

1862–1863

Fr. Wippermann

USA

1863–1865

Oscar Maliwros

USA

1865–1867

A. Hartmann

USA

1867–1872

Al. C. Hepites

USA

1872–1878

Timotei C. Schmidt

USA

1878–1884

Leopold Dolfus de Meric (gerant)

USA

1884–(?)

Representatives in the European Commission of the Danube[18]

Name of consul

Country represented

Origin

Inclusive dates of public service

Becke

Austria

1856–1862

Kremer

Austria, Austria–Hungary

1862–1869

Zulauf de Pottenburg

Austria-Hungary

1869–1871

Schlechta

Austria-Hungary

1871–1873

Gröller

Austria-Hungary

1873–1875

De Haan

Austria-Hungary

1875–1882

Boleslawski

Austria-Hungary

1882–1890

Gsiller

Austria-Hungary

1890–1896

Czikann de Wahlborn

Austria-Hungary

1896–1897

Logothetti

Austria-Hungary

1897–1899

Victor de Borhek

Austria-Hungary

1899–1912

Felner von der Arl

Austria-Hungary

1912–1916

Engelhardt

France

1856–1867

D’Avril

France

1867–1877

Herbette

France

1877–1880

Barrère

France

1880–1883

Lavertujon

France

1883–1885

Reverseaux

France

1885–1891

D’Aubigny

France

1891

Cogordan

France

1891–1894

Sienkiewicz

France

1894–1896

Paillard – Ducléré

France

1896–1902

Marcellin Pellet

France

1902–1906

De Margerie

France

1906–1907

Deville

France

1907–1909

Soulange-Bodin

France

1909–1911

Guillemin

France

1911–1916

Bitter

Prussia

1856–1860

De Saint Pierre

Prussia

1860–1867

Keyserling Rautenburg

Prussia, North German Confederation

1867–1870

De Radowitz

Germany

1870–1873

De Pfuel

Germany

1873–1876

D’Alvensleben

Germany

1876–1878

Arendt

Germany

1878–1886

D’Aichberger

Germany

1886–1889

Wangenheim

Germany

1889–1891

Raffauf

Germany

1891–1895

De Loehr

Germany

1895–1902

Marheinecke

Germany

1902–1916

John Stokes

Great Britan

1856–1871

Charles Gordon

Great Britan

1871–1872

Siborne

Great Britan

1873–1882

Percy Sanderson

Great Britan

1882–1894

Henry Trotter

Great Britan

1894–1907

Hamilton Browne

Great Britan

1907–1913

John Baldwin

Great Britan

1913–1916

D’Aste

Sardinia

1856–1860

Strambio

Italy

1860–1866

Teccio de Bayo

Italy

1866–1867

Susinno

Italy

1867–1868

Berrio

Italy

1868–1873

Durando

Italy

1873–1877

Seysel d’Aix de Sommariva

Italy

1877–1878

Simondetti

Italy

1878–1881

Revest

Italy

1881–1887

De Riva

Italy

1887–1888

Corte

Italy

1888–1890

Tesi

Italy

1890–1899

Saint Martin

Italy

1899–1900

Pappalepore

Italy

1900–1906

Centurione

Italy

1906–1907

Acton

Italy

1907–1908

Monzani

Italy

1908

Visart

Italy

1909–1915

D’Offenberg

Russia

1856–1872

Zinoview

Russia

1872–1876

Stuart

Russia

1876–1878

Romanenko

Russia

1878–1892

De Lodygensky

Russia

1892–1902

Lobanow de Rostow

Russia

1902–1904

Kartamyschew

Russia

1904–1916

Omer Pasha

Turkey

1856–1863

Rashid Pasha

Turkey

1863–1864

Sabri Pasha

Turkey

1864

Rassim Pasha

Turkey

1864–1867

Suleyman Pasha

Turkey

1867–1870

Ismail Bey

Turkey

1870–1873

Fahri Bey

Turkey

1873–1875

Madjid Bey

Turkey

1876

Aali Bey

Turkey

1876

Mehmed Said Pasha

Turkey

1877

Constantin Effendi Et. Caratheodory

Turkey

1878–1886

Artin Effendi

Turkey

1886–1888

Maxime Effendi

Turkey

1888–1890

Azarian Effendi

Turkey

1890–1908

Ihsan Bey

Turkey

1908–1911

Haidar Bey

Turkey

1911–1916

 


[1] The list is based on information from Moise N. Pacu, Cartea judeţului Covurluiu. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891), 390–404, with additions from Lista corpului consular în România, 1889 (Bucharest: s.e., s.a.) and Liste de messieurs les membres du corps consulaire en Roumanie (Bucharest: Imprimeria Statului, 1902).

[2] For Austria and Austria–Hungary, data in Pacu, Cartea, 390–391.

[3] For Belgium, Ibid., 399–400.

[4] For Denmark, Ibid., 402–403.

[5] For France, Ibid., 391–392 and, with several differences, Ana Maria Vele, “Reprezentarea diplomatică a Franţei în România (1866–1914)”, Anuarul Institutului de Istorie G. Bariţiu din Cluj–Napoca, 47 (2008), 143–156.

[6] For Great Britain, Pacu, Cartea, 392–394.

[7] For Greece, Ibid., 400-401.

[8] Prefectura Poliţiei Galaţi, Indicatorul oraşului Galaţi, cuprinzând adresele tuturor autorităţilor civile şi militare, ale caselor mari comerciale şi ale tuturor instituţiunilor etc. etc. (Galaţi: s.e, s.a), 24.

[9] For Prussia, the German states and Germany, Pacu, Cartea, 394–395.

[10] For the Italian states and Italy, Ibid., 395–396.

[11] For Russia, Ibid., 398–399.

[12] For Turkey, Ibid., 399

[13] For Sweden–Norway, Ibid., 401–402

[14] For The Netherlands, Ibid., 402.

[15] For Spain, Ibid., 403.

[16] For Switzerland, Ibid., 403 and online at http://db.dodis.ch/organization/11985.

[17] For the USA, Pacu, Cartea, 404.

[18] La Commission Européenne du Danube et son oeuvre, de 1856 à 1931 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1931), 76–81.


References

Websites:

Official site of the Swiss archives

http://db.dodis.ch/organization/11985

Archival sources:

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Consulatul General al Angliei la Galaţi (General Consulate of England at Galaţi), 1 file covering the period 1877–1879.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Consulatul General al Rusiei la Galaţi (General Consulate of Russia at Galaţi), 2 files for the period 1853–1893.

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Comisia Europeană a Dunării (The European Commission of the Danube), files starting with 1856.

Bibliography:

La Commission Européenne du Danube et son oeuvre, de 1856 à 1931 (Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, 1931).

Lista corpului consular în România, 1889 [The List of the Consular Body in Romania, 1889] (Bucharest: s.e., s.a.).

Liste de messieurs les membres du corps consulaire en Roumanie (Bucharest: Imprimeria Statului, 1902).

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Prefectura Poliţiei Galaţi, Indicatorul oraşului Galaţi, cuprinzând adresele tuturor autorităţilor civile şi militare, ale caselor mari comerciale şi ale tuturor instituţiunilor etc. etc. [The Indicator of Galaţi, Containing the Addresses of all Civil and Military Authorities, of the Large Commercial Houses and of All Institutions etc.] (Galaţi: s.e, s.a).

Vele, Ana Maria, “Reprezentarea diplomatică a Franţei în România (1866–1914)” [France’s Diplomatic Representation to Romania (1866–1914)], Anuarul Institutului de Istorie G. Bariţiu din Cluj–Napoca, 47 (2008), 143–156.


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