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Batoum


Administrative Hierarchies    EN GR

Author: TCHKOIDZE ΕΚΑ
Translation: SPANOU THALEIA

Abbreviations:

Essays on the history of Southwestern Georgia: სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ საქართველოს ისტორიის ნარკვევები: აჭარა, 4 ტომად, ტ. 3 ბათუმის ოლქი (1877-1920) [“Essays on the history of Southwest Georgia: Adjara”], 4 vols edition, 3rd vol. “The province of Batoum in 1877-1920”, Batoum: 2008.

GSE: ქართული საბჭოთა ენციკლოპედია [Georgian Soviet Encyclopedia], 12 vols. edition, Tbilisi: 1975-1987.

CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive, Directory, File (in Georgian: სცსსა: საქართველოს ცენტრალური სახელმწიფო საისტორიო არქივი, ფონდი, აღწ., საქმე)

The Caucasus mountain range that stretches between two seas divides the area into two otherwise non identical places: the North and the South Caucasus. They differ in all: the topography, the climate, the flora/fauna and the population.[1] The new areas that were annexed in Tsarist Russia geographically formed the continuation of Transcaucasia [2] (Transcaucasia, in Russsian Закавказье).

The administrative organization of the regions was an extremely difficult issue. The authorities had a very serious mission: to make the population not to regret for this change, namely to be found from the Ottoman Empire in the Russian Empire. [3] In 1878, in the new territories of tsarist Russia [4] two Oblast were created (in Georgian ოლქი) of Kars and Batoum. [5] The extent of all the Oblast of Batoum was 6,975 square kilometers (according to the data of 1904), and the population was 121,832 inhabitants (according to the data of 1905). [6] The Oblast of Kars and Batoum were of great importance for Russia. Therefore, as early as 20/09/1878, the General-Feldmarshal of Caucasus M. Romanov [7] signed the temporary order for the division of Batoum’s Oblast in three Okrug [8] and nine Uezd. [9] The three Okrug were the following: Artvin with the city of Artvin (with 6,442 citizens) [10], Batoum and Adjara. Batoum’s Okrug had a total of 300 villages. [11] Both the new Oblast of Batoum and Kars in 1883 were included under the Guberniia of Kutaisi [12] as Okrug of Batoum and Okrug of Artvin (in Russian, Батумский и Артвинский Округ).  [13] The Guberniia of Kutaisi, having 4,683,624 inhabitants in total, was the second largest (after Tbilisi) out of the total 5 that Transcaucasia’s district had at this period (in Russian Закавказский Край). The District apart from these 5 Guberniias consisted of 2 Oblast and 2 Okrug. The Guberniia of Kutaisi had 10 administrative units: 7 Uezd and 3 Okrug, that of Batoum in the ninth place and of Artvin in the tenth. [14]

The administrative staff of Batoum’s Okrug consisted of 9 appointed officials and the administration was in the city of Batoum. [15] The city itself, as an important port, was listed as a separate administrative unit [16] was called “port-city” (in Russian портовый город) [17] and it was directly integrated under the supervision of the Governor of the region. [18] Batoum had its own budget. [19] In both Oblast a military-police regime was established called military-municipal administration (in Russian военно-народное управление). [20] Their governors, like the head of Okrug, should be military. The title of the local governor of Batoum was initially “Military Governor of Batoum” (in Georgian ბათუმის სამხედრო გუბერნატორი), being under the Viceroy of Caucasus. [21] The Governor had an assistant who had to replace the Governor when he was absent and to preside in court. [22] This administrative system lasted only 5 years (1878-1883). During this time only two Military Governors served. Russian authorities transferred the house of the former Consul Djudichi to house the Military Governor of Batoum’s Oblast. [23] This house was admittedly the best building in the entire city with an amazing garden and European facilities. After the abolition of the military regime the house was used for the Governor of Kutaisi keeping its name as a “governmental house” (in Russian губернаторский дом). [24]

Batoum as a city was headed by the “police chief” (начальник/пристав полиции, ή полицмейстер). [25] The city itself had divided into 4 police districts (полицейские участки [26], in Georgian საპოლიციო უ ბნები). The staff of the police administration, since 1885 apart from the chief had also two police officers. [27] First police chief of the city of Batoum was appointed the Georgian D. Zhuruli, [28] who was later replaced by the Russian Voznesensky. [29] As deputy governor (namely assistant police chief in Russian помощник начальника полиции [30]) was appointed the Georgian prince N. Eristavi. [31] The city “police” personnel had another 6 officials, including one supervising the prison and a doctor of the city. [32] All personnel were appointed by the first Military Governor of Batoum, K. Komarov, and were under his jurisdiction [33] since 01/10/1878. [34] The Governor of Batoum was also called “chief of the port-city of Batoum” (начальник портоваго города Батума). [35] The first Governor Komarov he also created the administrative Authority of the city and he appointed as the head of Batoum’s Okrug the Georgian prince Grigol Gurieli (in Georgian გრიგოლ გურიელი). [36]

In Batoum there were 19 different types of taxes that formed its income. [37] The Governor ratified and approved the city’s expenditure. [38] For the maintenance of the police personnel of the city was spent only the 20-28% of the total budget, [39] which was not considered large for a city that was under the regulation of porto-franco and whose population was increasing day by day. [40]

The administration structure of the Oblast of Batoum was fully formed one year later, that is in September 1879 (Secretariat, Committee of the military and civil service, police and so on) and in almost all high posts, Russian officials were appointed. [41] This preference of official Tsarist Authorities was conscious choice [42], although since 1880 there have been a call for allowing locals, especially those who had served the Ottoman state apparatus, to be hired in the Russian services. [43]

Since Batoum was declared a military first-class port, work on the construction of a fort by the sea started immediately. The Rear Admiral (Контр-адмирал) N. R. Greve (in Russian Николай Романович Греве (1853–1913) was appointed сommander of the port. [44]

As early as the first years of the Batoum administrative staff functioning, a deep administrative crisis and corruption was noted, that put the authorities in thought. So, by June of 1883, the Oblast of Batoum was abolished as an autonomous administrative unit and joined the Guberniia of Kutaisi that was based in Batoum, while the city was ruled by the police chief once again. [45] During the same year the post of Kutaisi Governor’s assistant was established, who had as exclusive responsibility the supervision of the Okrug of Batoum. [46]

During the years 1883-1903, the Oblast of Batoum was part of the Guberniia of Kutaisi [47] under the status of a special administrative unit, (Особая административная единица), was officially called a “port-city” (In Georgian ნავსადგურის ქალაქი). [48] Since 1903 the Oblast of Batoum had been finally separated from the Guberniia of Kutaisi, [49] something that had been examined and considered as a necessary measure for the proper functioning of the Oblast of Batoum. [50] So, on 17/03/1903 Emperor Nicholas the II signed the decision on the new division of Kutaisi’s Guberniia. Under this decision a new Oblast of Batoum was created. [51] In Batoum a Military Governor was appointed. [52] The staff of the new Guberniia was composed of the following: Military Governor, Governor’s assistant (in Russian помощник Батумского военного губернатора), [53] head of the customs office, etc. All staff would be maintained by the City Council of Batoum. [54]

 


[1]Ст. Гулишамбаров, Обзор фабрик и заводов Закавказского края [St. Gulishambarov, Overview of small and large factories of Transcaucasian region], (Tbilisi: 1894), p. 5. The capital of Georgia, Tbilisi, was considered the “strategic and geopolitical key of the whole region. Its conquest was the ultimate goal of the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire during the 19th century, something never achieved. Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Caucasian calendar for the year 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of the Viceroy of Caucasus], (Tbilisi: 1878), p. 505.

[2] Geographically more correct is the term “South Caucasus” compared to the term “Transcaucasia”. The latter corresponds to a Russian view and is outdated. Therefore, when it comes to archival documents we will use the term “Transcaucasia” and when it comes to our comments we will prefer the term “South Caucasus”.

[3] А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1879), p. 120

[4] See the exact borders of the empire before the integration of these areas Caucasian calendar for the year 1879, ibid, pp. 504-505.

[5] For the exact borders and the areas included in both Oblast see ო. თუმრანიძე, „რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონი, [O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration and the colonization of the region”], in Essays on the history of Southwestern Georgia, pp. 55-56.

[6] ო. ჟორდანია, ბათუმის ოლქი Template [O. Zhordania, “The Oblast of Batoum”], G.S.E .vol. 2 (1977), p. 151.

[7] It is about the Viceroy of Caucasus in the years (1862-1881) M. N. Romanov (1832-1909), fourth (younger) son of the Russian Emperor Nicholas I (1825-1855), see details in http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_m/mih_nik_r.php.

[8] In terms of characterization there are no substantial differences between Oblast and Okrug. Both are regions. But in administrative classification Okrug is inferior to Oblast.

[9] See article 8 of the Statute, ვ. სიჭინავა ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში) [V. Sitchinava, From the history of Batoum, integration with Russia and socio-economic development 1878-1907], (Batoum: 1958), pp. 76-77. O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, p. 56. The head of these regions is called пристав. В. М. Грибовский, Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian empire], (Odessa: 1912), p. 142.

[10] Н. С. Державин, «Историко-географический очерк Батумскаго края» [N. C. Derzhavin, “Historical-Geographical Study of the Batoum Region”] in Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906), p. 21.

[11] O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, p. 61.

[12] See all the details on the region and the areas that formed part of the Guberniia of Kutaisi in http://www.runivers.ru/doc/territory/366672/

[13]Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron], volume XIIIA (26), (St. Petersburg: 1890-1907), p. 820. The volume available on web as well in: http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10157/n.page/347/mode/1up.

[14] In the eighth place was the Okrug of Sukhum, another city on the Black Sea in Abkhazia. St. Gulishambarov, Overview of large and small factories, ibid, pp. 3-4.

[15] See details Всеобщий Адрес Ежегодник города Батума на 1902 [General annual Batoum’s city guide for 1902], (Batoum: bookshop edition M. Nikoladze, 1902), pp. 53-54. See the names of the employees Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [issued by the General Administration of the Viceroy of Caucasus], (Tbilisi: 1879), p. 154. It is noteworthy that the staff had 1 translator and 2 interpreters, of which a Greek named Georgios Anastasios Metaxas. These are three additional employees along with the nine mentioned above.

[16] CSHAG, Archive 1864, Directory 1, File 24, document n. 109.

[17] A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, ibid, p. 121. Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1879], p. 518.

[18] O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, p. 56. Regarding the military and administrative affairs the Oblast of Batoum was under the Commander in chief of the Caucasian army. O. Zhordania, Template “The Oblast of Batoum”, ibid, p. 151.

[19] O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, p. 60.

[20] Ι. С. Месхи , «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of the municipal administration of Batoum”], in Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906), p. 465.

[21] Articles 3 and 4 of the Statute of Batoum signed in 1878. V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, ibid, p. 76.

[22] Article 5 of the Statute. V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, ibid, p. 76. A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, p. 121.

[23] For the cost of the maintenance of this entire mechanism (police and administration) including the housing of the officials, see details per year until 1888 when it was abolished and replaced by the City Council. I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”, p. 478.

[24] I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”, p. 461.

[25] See details about the number of people that were employed in individual sections of the police and their salaries. V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, ibid, p. 79. About the police in general in the cities of the Russian Empire see V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian Empire, ibid, p. 142.

[26] See details about the exact borders of all 4 districts Н. М. Дакишевич, Батум [N. M. Dakishevich, Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1890), pp. 2-4.

[27] I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”, ibid, p. 476. The maintenance of all staff cost 1189 rubles and 16 kopek monthly. I. S. Meskhi, ibid, p. 476. Later, in 1881, an official for passports was added to the staff. I. S. Meskhi, ibid, pp. 476-477.

[28] He was a unique man and a passionate art lover, who along with his wife, Katevan, zealously supported theater performances and every cultural effort in the city. Among his other virtues, he was known for his hospitality as well. ნ. კვაჭაძე ბათუმის პოლიცმეისტერის ოჯახი [N. Kvachadze, “The family of the police chief of Batoum”], available in Georgian in www.oldbatumi.wordpress.com. (See reference on him also in the template about theaters). His son, Georgios Zhuruli, (1865-1951) was a member of the government (Minister of Finance and of Industry/Trade) of Georgian Republic.

[29] Other persons in this post are not recorded. The first name of Voznesensky and details about his life are unknown. D. Kldiashvili characterizes him as a “pleasant personality. He spent a lot of energy to make Batoum beautiful”. დ. კლდიაშვილი, ჩემი ცხოვრების გზაზე [D. Kldiashvili, The path of my life], (Tbilisi: 1961), p. 48. It was his initiative the creation of the city’s large park (Boulevard).

[30] Details on this post V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian Empire, p. 142.

[31] He is mentioned and as an assistant of the Military Governor of Batoum. Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880, ibid, p. 144 and p. 154. Nikos Eristavis in 1895 was proposed at the first elections to be city prefect but he refused to be a candidate. Newspaper ივერია Iveria, 04/02/1895, n. 26, p. 3.

[32] Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880, ibid, p. 155.

[33] Throughout the Russian Empire the supervisors (chiefs) were subject to the Governors. V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian Empire, ibid, p. 142.

[34] V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, pp. 78-79. See all those who nominally constituted the Police Council of the city, a total of 13 people. თ. კომახიძე, ბათუმის ამაგდარნი [T. Komakhidze, Important people of Batoum], (Batoum: 1993), p. 62. The intermediate/transitional period, from late August until 01/10/1878 the city was placed under “temporary situation” (“временное положение”). I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of the municipal administration of Batoum”, ibid, p. 465.

[35] A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, p.122.

[36]Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880, p. 154. Official website of Batoum’s Council.

http://batumicc.ge/index.php?lang=1&page=menu&top_menu=1&l_menu=9. It is about the General mentioned above. He was a member of the Committee that settled all the details regarding the entry of Russians in Batoum. A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, p. 5. This was a man who enjoyed great confidence in the local population “Wherever the prince Gurieli appeared, all subjugated without hesitation, not even one imagined to object”. He received the state property of the Ottoman (weapons, government documents). ს. მესხი ქუთაისი 20 აგვისტოს [S. Meskhi, “Kutaisi on the 20th of August”], in წერილები აჭარაზე [Publications on Adjara], რ. სურმანიძე [R. Surmanidze, ed.-comments-observations-indexes], (Batoum: 2000), p. 103.

The staff of Okrug of Batoum besides the chief had also an assistant chief, a Governor, a translator and an interpreter. Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880, p. 154.

[37] See nominally all taxes I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of the municipal administration of Batoum”, pp. 468-475. მ. სიორიძე „საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში“, [M. Sioridze, Creation of self-administration in Batoum], in ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Essays on Batoum’s history], (Tbilisi: 2011), p. 212.

[38] M. Sioridze, “Creation of self-administration in Batoum”, p. 212.

[39] M. Sioridze, “Creation of self-administration in Batoum”, p. 213.

[40] M. Sioridze, “Creation of self-administration in Batoum”, p. 213.

[41] O. Turmanidze, ‘The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, pp. 56-57. This was the immediate impact of the Tsarist Russian general policy: the language in administration, in court, and in church to be Russian even in the most remote provinces. This was the special “language” policy that Tsarist Russia wanted to implement for the non-Russian speaking inhabitants of the Empire, in the second half of the 19th century. This policy is characterized as Russification, in Russian Русификация, in Georgian რუსიფიკაცია) in historiography. See details on the term http://sociolinguistics.academic.ru

[42] O. Turmanidze, ‘The system of the Russian administration”, ibid, p. 62.

[43] CSHAG, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820, l. 77.

[44]His short biography is available in the Russian military literature (http://militera.lib.ru/h/manvelov_nv/26.html).

[45] V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, ibid, p. 82.

[46] Official website of the Town Hall of the city of Batoum http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2

[47] O. Zhordania, Template “The Oblast of Batoum”, ibid, p. 151.

[48] Article 8 of the Statute, V. Sitchinava, From Batoum’s history, p. 76.

[49] O. Zhordania, Template “The Oblast of Batoum”, ibid, p. 151.

[50] CSHAG, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820, l. 42.

[51] See the relevant decree n. 47 (28/06/1903). CSHAG, Archive 22, Directory 1, File 922, l.85.

[52] Document nο. 8503 of the Minister of the Interior, 30/03/1903. CSHAG, Archive 229, Directory 1, File 922, l. 2.

[53] Both the Governor and the Deputy Governor of Batoum with their respective rights and obligations were equivalent to the Governors and the Deputy Governors of the Transcaucasian Guberniias. Document n. 8503 of the Minister of the Interior, 30/03/1903. CSHAG, Archive 229, Directory 1, File 922, l. 2.

[54] See detailed table of the inkopekive of the Governor’s staff of Batoum CSHAG, Archive 229, Directory 1, File 922, l. 4. Indicatively the Governor would get 10,000 rubles annually and his assistant 4,500. All expenses amounted 22,570 rubles. Ibid, l. 4. For the self-administration, the City Council and the institution of the Urban Prefect, see in detail in the relevant templates.


References

English language

Websites:

- http://batumicc.ge/index.php?lang=1&page=menu&top_menu=1&l_menu=9 (Official website of Batoum’s Council).

- http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2 (Official website of the Town Hall of Batoum’s city)

- http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_m/mih_nik_r.php

- http://militera.lib.ru/h/manvelov_nv/26.html (Russian military literature)

- www.oldbatumi.wordpress.com

- http://sociolinguistics.academic.ru

- http://www.runivers.ru/doc/territory/366672/http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10157/page/347/mode/1up

Archival sources:

CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 1864, Directory 1, File 24. The whole file contains documents (in Russian) of the Foreign Ministry of the Georgian Republic.

CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820

CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 229, Directory 1, File 922.

Newspapers:

ივერია Iveria, 04/02/1895, n. 26.

Bibliography:

- Всеобщий Адрес Ежегодник города Батума на 1902 [General annual Batoum’s city guide for 1902], (bookshop edition M. Nikoladze, Batoum: 1902).

- Ст. Гулишамбаров, Обзор фабрик и заводов Закавказского края [St. Gulishambarov, Overview of small and large factories of Transcaucasian region], (Tbilisi: 1894).

- В. М. Грибовский, Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian Empire], (Odessa: 1912).

- Н. М. Дакишеви, Батум [N. M. Dakishevich, Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1890).

- Н. С. Державин, «Историко-географический очерк Батумскаго края», in Батум и его окрестности (N. C. Derzhavin Batoum and its surroundings), (Batoum: 1906).

- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron), volume XIIIА (26), СПб St. Petersburg 1890-1907.

- ო. ჟორდანია, „ბათუმის ოლქი Template [O. Zhordania, “The Oblast of Batoum], G,S.E .vol., 2 (1977).

- Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of the Viceroy of Caucasus], (Tbilisi: 1878).

- Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of the Viceroy of Caucasus], (Tbilisi: 1879).

- ნ. კვაჭაძე, „ბათუმის პოლიცმეისტერის ოჯახი [N. Kvachadze, “The family of the police chief of Batoum”], available in Georgian in www.oldbatumi.wordpress.com .

- დ. კლდიაშვილი, ჩემი ცხოვრების გზაზე [D. Kldiashvili, The path of my life], (Tbilisi: 1961).

- თ. კომახიძე, ბათუმის ამაგდარნი [T. Komakhidze, Important people of Batoum], (Batoum: 1993).

- Ι. С. Месхи, «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of the municipal administration of Batoum”], in Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906).

- ს. მესხი, „ქუთაისი 20 აგვისტოს [S. Meskhi, “Kutaisi on August 20”], in წერილები აჭარაზე [Publications on Adjara], რ. სურმანიძე (R. Surmanidze, ed.-comments-remarks-indexes), (Batoum: 2000).

- მ. სიორიძე, „საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში“, [M. Sioridze, “Creation of self-administration in Batoum”], in ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Essays on Batoum’s history], (Tbilisi: 2011).

- ვ. სიჭინავა, ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში) [V. Sitchinava, From the history of Batoum, integration with Russia and socio-economic development 1878-1907], (Batoum: 1958).

- ო. თუმრანიძე, „რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია [O. Turmanidze, “The system of Russian administration and the colonization of the region], in Essays on the history of Southwestern Georgia.

- А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1879).


 

Ελληνική γλώσσα [in greek language]


Websites:

- http://batumicc.ge/index.php?lang=1&page=menu&top_menu=1&l_menu=9 (Επίσημη ιστοσελίδα του Συμβουλίου του Βατούμ)

- http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2 (Επίσημη ιστοσελίδα του δημαρχείου της πόλης του Βατούμ)

- http://www.hrono.ru/biograf/bio_m/mih_nik_r.php

- http://militera.lib.ru/h/manvelov_nv/26.html (ρωσική στρατιωτική λογοτεχνία

- www.oldbatumi.wordpress.com

- http://sociolinguistics.academic.ru

- http://www.runivers.ru/doc/territory/366672/

- http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10157/#page/347/mode/1up

Archival sources:

ΚΚΙΑΓ (სცსსა): Κεντρικό Κρατικό Ιστορικό Αρχείο της Γεωργίας, Αρχείο 1864, Κατάλογος 1, Φάκελος 24. Όλος ο φάκελος εμπεριέχει έγγραφα (στα ρωσικά) του Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών της Γεωργιανής Δημοκρατίας.

ΚΚΙΑΓ (სცსსა): Κεντρικό Κρατικό Ιστορικό Αρχείο της Γεωργίας, Αρχείο 416, Κατάλογος 3, Φάκελος 820

ΚΚΙΑΓ (სცსსა): Κεντρικό Κρατικό Ιστορικό Αρχείο της Γεωργίας, Αρχείο 229, Κατάλογος 1, Φάκελος 922.

Εφημερίδες:

ივერია Iveria, 04/02/1895, 26.

Bibliography:

- Всеобщий Адрес Ежегодник города Батума на 1902 [Γενικός ετήσιος οδηγός της πόλης Βατούμ για το 1902], (έκδοση βιβλιοπωλείου M. Nikoladze, Βατούμ: 1902).

- Ст. Гулишамбаров, Обзор фабрик и заводов Закавказского края [St. Gulishambarov, Επισκόπηση μικρών και μεγάλων εργοστασίων της περιφέρειας της Υπερκαυκασίας], (Τιφλίδα: 1894).

- В. М. Грибовский, Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [V. M. Gribovsky, Κρατική οργάνωση και διοίκηση της ρωσικής αυτοκρατορίας], (Οδησσός: 1912).

- Н. М. Дакишевич Батум [N. M. Dakishevich, Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 1890).

- Н. С. Державин, «Историко-географический очерк Батумскаго края», στο Батум и его окрестности [N. C. Derzhavin, Το Βατούμ και τα περίχωρά του], (Βατούμ: 1906).

- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Εγκυκλοπαιδικό λεξικό του Brogkauz και Efron], τόμος XIIIА [26), СПб Αγία Πετρούπολη 1890-1907.

- ო. ჟორდანია, „ბათუმის ოლქი“ [O. Zhordania, Λήμμα «Το Όμπλαστ του Βατούμ»], ΓΣΕ τ. 2ος (1977).

- Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Ημερολόγιο του Καυκάσου για το έτος 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Εκδοθέν από τη Γενική Διοίκηση του Τοποτηρητή του Καυκάσου], (Τιφλίδα: 1878).

- Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Ημερολόγιο του Καυκάσου για το έτος 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Εκδοθέν από τη Γενική Διοίκηση του Τοποτηρητή του Καυκάσου], (Τιφλίδα: 1879).

- ნ. კვაჭაძე, „ბათუმის პოლიცმეისტერის ოჯახი“ [N. Kvachadze, «Οικογένεια του προϊστάμενου της αστυνομίας του Βατούμ»], διαθέσιμο στα γεωργιανά στο www.oldbatumi.wordpress.com .

- დ. კლდიაშვილი, ჩემი ცხოვრების გზაზე [D. Kldiashvili, Στον δρόμο της ζωής μου], (Τιφλίδα: 1961).

- თ. კომახიძე, ბათუმის ამაგდარნი [T. Komakhidze, Σημαντικοί άνθρωποι του Βατούμ], (Βατούμ: 1993).

- Ι. С. Месхи, «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, «Δοκίμιο για την ανάπτυξη δημοτικής διοίκησης του Βατούμ»], στο Батум и его окрестности [Το Βατούμ και τα περίχωρά του], (Βατούμ: 1906).

- ს. მესხი, „ქუთაისი 20 აგვისტოს“ [S. Meskhi, «Κουταΐσι στις 20 Αυγούστου»], στο წერილები აჭარაზე [Δημοσιεύματα για την Ατζαρία], რ. სურმანიძე [R. Surmanidze, επιμ.-σχόλια-παρατηρήσεις-ευρετήρια], (Βατούμ: 2000).

- მ. სიორიძე, „საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში“, [M. Sioridze, «Δημιουργία της αυτοδιοίκησης στο Βατούμ»], στο ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Δοκίμια για την ιστορία του Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 2011).

- ვ. სიჭინავა, ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში] [V. Sitchinava, Από την ιστορία του Βατούμ (ενσωμάτωση με τη Ρωσία και κοινωνικοοικονομική ανάπτυξη 1878-1907)], (Βατούμ: 1958).

- ო. თუმრანიძე, „რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია“ [O. Turmanidze, «Το σύστημα της ρωσικής διοίκησης και ο εποικισμός της περιοχής»], στο Δοκίμια για την ιστορία της ΝΔ Γεωργίας.

- А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Δοκίμια για το Churuk-Su και Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 1879).


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