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Batoum


Legal framework – foundation ordinances of ports and cities    EN GR

Author: TCHKOIDZE ΕΚΑ
Translation: SPANOU THALEIA

Abbreviations:

CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive, Directory, File (in Georgian: სცსსა: საქართველოს ცენტრალური სახელმწიფო საისტორიო არქივი, ფონდი, აღწ., საქმე)

Essays on the history of Southwestern Georgia: სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ საქართველოს ისტორიის ნარკვევები: აჭარა, 4 ტომად, ტ. 3 ბათუმის ოლქი (1877-1920) (Essays on the history of the Southwestern Georgia: Adjara, 4 vols. edition, 3rd vol. “The province of Batoum in 1877-1920).

(M. Sioridze), Essays: მალხაზ სიორიძე (Malkhaz Sioridze), ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (Essays on the history of Batoum), თბილისი Tbilisi 2011

The name of the city derives from the Greek word deep [1]. The city is the political, economic and cultural center of Adjara (in Georgian: აჭარა Atchara, in Russian: Аджара, internationally known Adjara [2]) located in southwestern Georgia that is bordering directly with Turkey and extending to the east coast of the Black Sea.

The historic Adjara together with some other Georgian regions was occupied by the Ottomans [3] in 1595 [4] and by the early 17th century is officially recorded in the sources as part of the Ottoman Empire [5]. It was integrated into Georgia [6] after the victory of Tsarist Russia in the last Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878. [7] The liberalization of Batoum is part of a general change of Russian Empire noted in the mid-19th century and virtually coincides with the beginning of a new period of Islam in Russia. Alexander’s II reign (1855-81) is the period during which the areas occupied by the empire are largely Muslim [8], since the long-lasting Caucasian War of 1864 ended with Russia’s victory [9]. It was followed by the occupation of western Armenia’s areas and of southern Georgia (Muslim Lazistan) [10], including Batoum. However, the interest of the imperial people had turned long before to that region. Emperor Nicholas I (1825-1855) in particular, in his letter to the first Viceroy of Caucasus [11] between 1844 and 1854, Mkhail Semionovitch Vorontsov (in Russian Михаил Семёнович Воронцов 1782-1856), had written the following: “It would be nice if after Kars we dominate in Batoum as well” [12]. It seems that Russia’s ambitions were not secret. At the same time Karl Marx reports: “The port of Batoum is the only safe haven for the ships in the eastern shores of the Black Sea. Its domination by Russia could deprive Turkey from the last military-shipping base in Pontos and make it strictly a Russian sea”. [13]

In the treaty of San Stefano [14] the Ottoman side had to pay to the Russian empire the amount of 1410 rubles. Since it was unable to pay, it granted the lands of the historical Georgia and Armenia. These were among others Ardahan, Artvin, Batoum, Kars, Artanuji, Olti and Beyazit. [15] Thus, in the Russian Empire, in the southern Caucasus areas, territories of 23,108 square kilometers were added, of which historical Georgian were 15,392 [16], meaning more than half. A period of three years was set for population exchange (of the so-called muhajir) [17], for those who wanted to emigrate to Turkey [18]. After the Treaty of San Stefano the Congress of Berlin followed (1st of June -1st of July of 1878). [19] Overall, Russia managed to keep the terms of the Treaty of San Stefano, although it lost some areas of Asia Minor (e.g. Erzerum, Beyazit). In this Congress Batoum was declared free port (Porto-Franco). [20] The relevant article no. 59 states: “His majesty the Emperor of All Russia announces that he plans to convert Batoum into a Porto-Franco for commercial reasons mostly”. [21]

The decision of the Congress of Berlin for declaring Batoum a Porto-Franco (Free-Port) was put into effect from the 20th of October of that year. [22] On 23/07/1886 this scheme [23] was abolished by a decree of the Emperor Alexander III (1881-1894). [24] Then, important changes in the status and the administrative organization of the city followed.

Before entering the Russian army in Batoum, a commission was created headed by the Governor-General D. I. Sviatopolk-Mirsky (in Russian Дмитрий Иванович Святополк-Мирский, (1825-1899) [25] and the members: Governor-General Trubetskoy, Colonel the Georgian prince Gr. Gurieli and the former consul of Russia in Batoum Piotr Djudichi. This committee had undertaken all the details of the city’s transmission from the Ottomans to Russians and the negotiations for the transaction. [26] On 25 August [27] 1878 the city of Batoum invaded the military Russian unit 28] headed by the above-mentioned D. I. Sviatopolk-Mirsky. At the Azize square (now Liberty square) took place the ceremony of surrender-separation, where Dervish Pasha [29] handed over the keys of the city to the General [30]. On 20/09/1878 the Viceroy of Caucasus, M. Romanov, in the years 1862-1881 signed the provisional statute of the new administrative organization of Batoum and the wider region. [31] The statute had a total of 14 articles. [32]

On the 27/01 (08/08) of 1879 in Constantinople, the peace Treaty was signed between Russia and the Ottoman Empire that gave a three year chance to those who wanted to emigrate from the new Russian administrative unit to Turkey. The citizens that would not do so within three years, they would be considered hereafter Russia’s vassals. [33]

The first period of the reunification of Batoum seems that there was fear of resurgence of a new war with Turkey. Therefore, the port of Batoum got in the beginning a more strategic and political importance than a commercial one. [34] It is characteristic the phrase of Greve (in Russian Греве), the commander of the port of Batoum (in Russian Командир Батумского Порта), who had the military title of Rear Admiral (Kontr Admiral): “Nobody knows if tomorrow we will have war. Therefore we have to rush to transform this glorious harbor, so important in Caucasus, inaccessible for enemies and welcoming to friends”. [35]

For ten whole years (1878-1888) Batoum functioned under police regime since it lacked the city status. [36] In a document (December, 1880) it is stated that through special representatives (in Russian через особых представителей) of the civil strata requests/demands were submitted, of which no. 1 was to be recognized the status of the city of Batoum (in Russian городское положение). [37] In 1885, 90 distinguished citizens of Batoum (referred as обыватель), addressed in writing to the appropriate leader of the municipal affairs of Caucasus, so as Batoum to acquire the city status. [38] In order their application to be approved 3 years passed. A reason for the rejection was the city’s low income (less than 150000 rubles). [39] In 1887 incidents did occur of expropriation public money by the staff administration of the city which led the authorities to take drastic measures. [40] Finally the city status of Batoum was given on 18 April 1888 [41] by the military Governor of Kutaisi A. I. Grossman (in Russian Александр Игнатьевич Гросман ), but with several limitations˙ concerning the infrastructure Batoum was subjugated to the Governor of Kutaisi, and its Urban Prefect (gradonachalnik) during the first 4 years was not elected but appointed. [42]

During the First World War the area became again the bone of contention between the superpowers of the time. On 03/03/1918 in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk the Bolshevik Russia and Germany came to an agreement (paragraph 4) to restore the Russian-Ottoman borders of 1877. Therefore, Russia had to surrender in Turkey the areas referred as Eastern Anatolia (in Russian Восточная Анатолия) [43]. During the same year the Congress of Trabzon took place (14/03-05/04). Representatives from southern Caucasus attempted to restore the pre-1914 borders, and the Ottoman side demanded to put into practice the decision of the Treaty of Brest. The negotiations came to a dead end. On 14/04/1918 both sides agreed to consider the dead end as a “break” of the Congress.[44] This agreement was violated by the Ottoman side on the same day. On 14 April 1918 Batoum was occupied by Turks. Under the Turkish regime the autonomous city administration, as it was shaped by the 1890s, was not abolished. Germany’s defeat in the First World War put an end to the 6-month occupation of Batoum by Ottomans.

Since 1919, Batoum and the wider area were transferred to the hands of Britain, which appointed the General Cook Collins as Governor both of the city and the Oblast of Batoum. On 11/06/1920 Great Britain’s government decided to withdraw its troops from Batoum [45] and to grant it to the government of the Georgian Republic. [46] France agreed as well. On 28/06/1920 the relevant agreement was ratified by the Georgian government. On 07/07/1920 a festive ceremony of Batoum’s surrender took place in the independent Georgia and on July of the same year Great Britain’s and France’s troops withdrew from Batoum. [47] After the violent conquest of Georgia by the Soviet Russia at the time, Turkey immediately introduced its troops in Batoum on 12 and 15-16 of March with the excuse of Russians expulsion. [48] On March 17, the defeated by the Soviets Government of the Georgian Republic, left Georgia from the port of Batoum heading to Trabzon having France as the final destination. The leadership of the army of the Georgian republic took the initiative to free the city of Batoum before fleeing. To that end volunteers fighters arrived from all Georgia. General Giorgi Mazniashvili (in Georgian გიორგი მაზნიაშვილი 1872-1937) led the army. The fighting began on 18 March. On 21 March Georgians managed to expel Turks from Batoum and keep Adjara within Georgia even being Soviet.

On 16/07/1921 the decree no. 54 of the Revolutionary Committee of Georgia was ratified (in Georgian საქართველოს რევოლუციური კომიტეტი), according to which the autonomous republic of Adjara was created within Soviet Georgia with Batoum [49] as its center, and thus in all institutions of Adjara, as in the whole of Georgia, the Soviet regime was imposed.

 


[1] The port of the city is the deepest among the ports of the Black Sea followed by that of Sevastopol.

[2] It derives from the Russian rendition. The accurate rendition, according to the Georgian accent would be Atchara.

[3] Neither the Ottomans nor the Persians succeeded to conquer all of Georgia.

[4] According to other evidence has been included in the Ottoman Empire since 1564 CSHAG: The Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 1864, Directory1, File 24, document no. 109.

[5] The first historical reference comes from the list Ayn Ali and dates back to 1611. ა. ავალიანი, მიწათმფლობელობის ფორმები აჭარაში [A. Avaliani, Types of landownership in Adjara], (Batoum: 1960), p. 132.

[6] In 1801 the eastern Georgia and later in 1810 the Western Georgia were conquered by the Russian Empire and became one of its regions.

[7] Thus Georgians took active part in the Russo-Turkish Wars, particularly in the Wars of 1806-1812, 1828-1829, 1853-1856 (Crimean War) ო. თურმანიძე, „რუსეთ- ოსმალეთის 1877-1878 წლების ომი და სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ საქართველოს დაბრუნება [O. Turmanidze, “Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the return of southwestern Georgia”], in the Essays on the history of southwestern Georgia, p. 43.

[8] D. Lieven (ed.), Cambridge History of Russia, vol. II (Imperial Russia 1689-1917), (Cambridge University Press, 2006), p. 210.

[9] See epigrammatically the reasons of success of Caucasian peoples against Russia over many decades. А. Н. Петров, (генерал-майор/ general-major), Русская военная сила [A. N. Petrov, Russian Military Power], vol. II [Imperial Russia from 1689 to 1891], (Moscow: 1892), p. 306.

[10] D. Lieven (ed.), Cambridge History of Russia, ibid, p. 210.

[11]After the conquest of Caucasus’ areas by Tsarist Russia, the whole region of Caucasus (in Russian Кавказский Край) became a major administrative unit called Vice-royalty (Namestnichestvo Наместничество) of Caucasus. It had existed since 1785 (for the north Caucasus region) but it was virtually established by the end of 1844 (it is called the second Vice-royalty) with first viceroy of Caucasus (Namestnik Kavkaza Наместник Кавказа) prince M. S. Vorontsov. Since 1846 this Vice-royalty in Transcaucasia had three governorates: Tbilisi, Kutaisi and Derbent. The Caucasian Vice-royalty was abolished in 1882 with last viceroy the Grand Duke Mikhail Nikolaevich (Михаил Николаевич). Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron], volume XIIIА (26), СПб St. Petersburg 1890-1907, p. 819-820. The volume available on the web: http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10157/#page/347/mode/1up. This institution was restored in 1905. It lasted until 1917 when it was created in Caucasus the Special Transcaucasian Committee (in Russian Особый Закавказский Комитет). In the intervening years 1882-1905 this administrative unit (Vice royalty of Caucasus) was called Caucasian Administration (in Russian Кавказская администрация).

The seat and the palace of Caucasus’ Viceroy were in Tbilisi. It still remains today on the main boulevard Rustaveli and is used as a House of Students and youth hosting various events for children and young people. The Viceroy was always the senior-military member having the title of Governor-General (in Russian Генерал-Губернатор). He had to check the implementation of laws, to supervise the courts’ functioning. He was entitled to annul the courts’ decisions if he considered them unjust. Generally, he had a broad jurisdiction. See details for this position, the obligations and rights of the Viceroy Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron], volume Том XXА (40), СПб St. Petersburg 1890-1907, p. 517. The volume is also available on the web http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3182/10171/, also see, В. М. Грибовский Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [V. M. Gribovsky, State Organization and administration of the Russian Empire], (Odessa: 1912), p. 147. The Viceroy of Caucasus is always appointed by the Emperor and always has two assistants in each sector: military and administrative. V. M. Gribovsky, State organization and administration of the Russian Empire, p. 142.

[12]Акты собранные Кавказской археографической комиссией [documents collected by the Caucasus Palaeography], vol. 10 (X), (Tbilisi: 1885), p. 769. The volume is also available on the web http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3029/9496/

[13] Karl Marx’s article was published on 14/06/1853 in “New York daily tribune”, no. 3794. К. Маркс-Ф. Енгельс, Сочинения [Κ. Marx-F. Engels, Works], vol. 9 (Moscow: 1957), p. 117.

[14] See the whole text of San Stefano’s agreement in Russian translation Сборник договоров России с другими государствами (1856-1917), [Collection of Russia’s agreements with other states 1856-1917], (Moscow: 1952), pp. 159-175.

[15] Details on the amount in Article no. 19 of the Treaty, Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p. 169. For the regions in the same article, paragraph b, ibid, p. 170.

[16] ო. თურმანიძე, ‘რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია [O. Turmanidze, The system of the Russian administration and the colonization of the region]’, in Essays on the history of southwestern Georgia, p. 62.

[17] Mudajir (Arabic word) means someone who wishes to leave his homeland and settle elsewhere, meaning a refugee, [O. Turmanidze “The system of the Russian government”], ibid, p. 68, footnote 91.

[18] Article no. 21. Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p.171.

[19] See the full text in Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p. 181-206.

[20] Article no. 59 Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p. 204, Батум и его окрестности, [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906), p. III.

[21] It was signed on 13/07/1878. Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p. 204. Also see Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906), p. III. Giving this status in the port of Batoum was a demand and a term of Great Britain that would not otherwise give its full permission of granting these regions to Russia. ს. მესხი, წერილები აჭარაზე [S. Meskhi, Publications on Adjara], in რ. სურმანიძე [R. Surmanidze] (ed.-comments-remarks-index), (Batoum: 2000), pp. 84-85.

[22] For the nature of this scheme, its advantages and disadvantages, its benefits for both the empire itself and for foreign forces briefly see the templates relating to the organization of the port.

[23] It is less known the fact that after 1886, namely the ceasing of the port’s status of being a Free Port until 1921, meaning the violent Sovietization of Georgia, four attempts were made to restore the Free port status in Batoum, ბათუმის თავისუფალ ქალაქად და ნავსადგურად გამოცხადების ისტორიისთვის (1878-1920), [Malkhaz Sioridze, About the history of the proclamation of Batoum as a free city and a Free port (1878-1920] in M. Sioridze, Essays, p.11. See details for all four cases and a thorough analysis of this scheme and its effects on the city’s economy and the wider region in M. Sioridze, “For the history of proclamation”, ibid pp. 11-28 with summaries in English (pp. 26-27) and in Russian (pp. 27-28). Batoum was the third city in Russian Empire following Odessa (1817) and Vladivostok (1862), where this status was imposed against the will of the empire itself, this time with the insistence not only of England but also of France. Ibid, p. 13.

[24] M. Sioridze, “For the history of proclamation”, ibid, p. 13.

[25] See details on his life and activity in http://pomnipro.ru/memorypage3273/biography

[26] А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1879), p. 6

[27] That day has been established as the official celebration of the town. Over the last years this date has been questioned and some speculate that the Russian army entered the city on 6 September and this might be a confusion caused by the change in the calendar. See ფ. ქარდავა,ბათუმი ხელიდან ხელში - ბრიტანული არქივებიდან“ [P. Kardava, Batoum in several hands], available in Georgian in http://oldbatumi.wordpress.com (under the category “From the British Archives”). However, this date (25August) was immediately accepted by the official authorities. See for instance Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of the Deputy of Caucasus], (Tbilisi: 1879), p. 224.

[28] According to the eye-witness, the journalist A. Frenkel, Russian troops headed to Batoum on the morning of 22/08/1878. A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, ibid, p. 1.

«Exactly at noon General Sviatopolk-Mirsky, escorted by three regiments of the Russian army and our army (the Georgian army) and me, your humble servant, we entered “Batoum in peace, calmly and certainly without a shot to be heard”. Article „ბათუმი, 25 აგვისტოს [Batoum on 25 August], in ს. მესხი, წერილები აჭარაზე [S. Meskhi, Publications on Adjara], [R. Surmanidze ed.-comments-remarks-indexes], (Batoum: 2000), p. 107.

[29] From relevant publications appears as a very good man. It is also recorded the speech he addressed before departing, ბათუმი 27 აგვისტოს [Batoum 27 August], in S. Meskhi, Publications on Adjara, ibid, pp. 117-118.

[30] One of the most detailed accounts on the Russian army’s entrance is involved in the report of Sir Alfred Biliotti (1833–1915). It is the Italian Deputy Consul of Britain in Rhodes, Trabzon, China and Thessaloniki. This report (no.120) was written on 12/09/1878. According to the same testimony the Russian army that entered Batoum consisted of 7000 soldiers in total. The report text available in ფ. ქარდავა [P. Kardava,“Batoum in various hands”], in http://oldbatumi.wordpress.com. Also see the official website of the Town Hall of Batoum http://www.batumi.ge/ . All the details about the entry and reception of Russians in Batoum, A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum, ibid, p. 51.

[31]Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of the Caucasian Viceroy], (Tbilisi: 1878), p. 518.

[32] The statute was written in Russian. See the Georgian translation of the full text in ვ. სიჭინავა, ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში [V. Sitchinava, “From the history of Batoum’s integration with Russia and socio-economic development 1878-1907”], (Batoum: 1958), pp. 75-76.

[33] The article no. 7, Collection of Russia’s agreements, ibid, p. 209. ნ. ვარშანიძე, „ბათუმის ოლქი რუსულ ადმინისტრაციულ სისტემაში (1879-1900 წლები [N. Varshanidze, “The Okrug of Batoum in the administrative system of Russia (1879-1900”], საისტორიო მაცნე [Historical informer] 11 (2002) ბსუ- State University of Batoum, p. 87. The Treaty of Constantinople essentially ratified the above relevant paragraph of the Treaty of San Stefano.

[34] For Russia Batoum has an extremely strategic and noncommercial importance”. Кавказский календарь на 1879], ibid, pp. 518-519.

[35] Document of 1880. He himself in this document testifies a draft of the port’s development with 12 key points. CSHAG, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820, l. 2-3.

[36] For the prevailing regime in Batoum before 1878 briefly in V. Sitchinava, From the history of Batoum, ibid, p. 75.

[37] CSHAG, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820, l. 11.

[38] Ι. С. Месхи, «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”], in Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906), p. 483. See a text from this document on the same page.

[39] See a text from the relevant document with the reasons of rejection I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”, ibid, p. 484.

[40] See details მალხაზ სიორიძე, ‘საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში, [Malkhaz Sioridze, “The establishment of self-administration in Batoum”], in M. Sioridze, Essays, pp. 214-215. They expropriated 4 thousands rubles. ტ. კოპალეიშვილი, საქალაქო თვითმმარველობის გამოცხადება ბათუმში 1888 წ. [T. Kopaleishvili, “Proclamation of the urban self-administration in Batoum in 1888”], საისტორიო მაცნე [Istoricheskii vestnik] 11 (2002) ბსუ- State university of Batoum), p. 72.

[41] I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”, ibid, p. 486. M. Sioridze, “The establishment of self –administration in Batoum”, ibid, p. 215. თ. კომახიძე, ქალაქ ბათუმის დაგეგმარებისა და განაშენიანების ისტორია [T. Komakhidze, History of design and construction of various buildings of the city of Batoum], 6 (book 6th), (Batoum: 2000), p. 38.

[42] ო. თურმანიძე, „რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია, [O. Turmanidze, “The system of the Russian administration and the colonization of the region”], in Essays on the history of southwestern Georgia, p. 60. It was undoubtedly a form of limited government. T. Kopaleishvili, Proclamation of urban self- administration, ibid, p. 73.

[43] See the full text of the Treaty of Brest in http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/191dok/19180303brest.php : The Okrug of Ardahan, Kars and Batoum should be immediately cleared by the Russian troops. Russia will not interfere anymore in the new organization of these Okrug in terms of state-rightfully and international legal relations”.

[44] Official website of the Town Hall of Batoum’s city http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2

[45] It is a big issue why the countries of Entente decided to leave Batoum. See relevant references მალხაზ სიორიძე, ბათუმი საქართველო-ანტანტის ურთიერთობაში 1920 წლის პირველ ნახევარში, [Malkhaz Sioridze, “Batoum in the relations between Georgia-Entente in the first half of 1920”], in M. Sioridze, Essay, pp. 172-190.

[46] After the October Revolution the Georgian politicians coming from the area of the Social Democratic Party (the so-called Mensheviks) proclaimed Georgia’s independence on 26/05/1918 under the name of Georgian Republic (in Georgian საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა, internationally Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG).

[47] M. Sioridze, “Batoum in the relations between Georgia-Entente”, ibid., p. 186.

[48]http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2

[49]http://batumicc.ge/index.php?lang=1&page=menu&top_menu=1&l_menu=9


References

English Language

Archival sources:

- CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 1864, Directory 1, File 24, document no. 109 in Russian. The whole file contains documents of the Foreign Ministry of the Georgian Republic (1920)

- CSHAG: Central State Historical Archive of Georgia, Archive 416, Directory 3, File 820.

Bibliography:

- Акты собранные Кавказской археографической комиссией [Documents collected by the Caucasus Palaeography], vol. 10 (X), (Tbilisi: 1885).

- ა. ავალიანი, მიწათმფლობელობის ფორმები აჭარაში [A. Avaliani, Types of landownership in Adjara], (Batoum: 1960).

- ნ. ვარშანიძე, „ბათუმის ოლქი რუსულ ადმინისტრაციულ სისტემაში (1879-1900 წლები [N. Varshanidze “The Okrug of Batoum in the administrative system of Russia (1879-1900”], საისტორიო მაცნე [Historical informer] 11 (2002) ბსუ- State University of Batoum,

- Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906).

- В. М. Грибовский [V. M. Gribovsky], Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [State Organization and administration of the Russian Empire], (Odessa: 1912).

- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron], volume XIIIА (26), (St. Petersburg: 1890-1907).

- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Encyclopedic dictionary of Brogkauz and Efron], volume Том XXА (40), (St. Petersburg: 1890-1907).

- Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of Caucasian Viceroy], (Tbilisi: 1878), p. 518.

Ø Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Caucasian Calendar for the year 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Issued by the General Administration of Caucasian Viceroy], (Tbilisi: 1879).

- თ. კომახიძე, ქალაქ ბათუმის დაგეგმარებისა და განაშენიანების ისტორია [T. Komakhidze, The history of design and construction of various buildings in the city of Batoum], book 6, (Batoum: 2000).

- ტ. კოპალეიშვილი, „საქალაქო თვითმმარველობის გამოცხადება ბათუმში 1888 წ. [T. Kopaleishvili, “Proclamation of urban self-administration in Batoum in 1888”], საისტორიო მაცნე [Historical informer] 11 (2002) ბსუ- State University of Batoum.

- D. Lieven (ed.), Cambridge History of Russia, vol. II (Imperial Russia 1689-1917), (Cambridge University Press: 2006).

- К. Маркс-Ф. Енгельс, Сочинения [Κ. Marx-F. Engels, Works], volume 9 (Moscow: 1957).

- Ι. С. Месхи, «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, “Essay on the development of municipal administration of Batoum”], in Батум и его окрестности [Batoum and its surroundings], (Batoum: 1906).

- ს. მესხი, წერილები აჭარაზე [S. Meskhi, Publications on Adjara], in რ. სურმანიძე [R. Surmanidze ed,-comments-remarks-indexes], (Batoum: 2000).

- А. Н. Петров, (генерал-майор/ General-Major), Русская военная сила [A. N. Petrov, Russian military power], vol. 2 (Imperial Russia from 1689 to 1891), (Moscow: 1892).

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „ბათუმის თავისუფალ ქალაქად და ნავსადგურად გამოცხადების ისტორიისთვის (1878-1920), [Malkhaz Sioridze, “About the history of the proclamation of Batoum as a free city and a Free port (1878-1920], in მალხაზ სიორიძე, ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Malkhaz Sioridze, Essays on Batoum’s history], (Tbilisi: 2011), pp. 11-28.

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში“, [Malkhaz Sioridze, “The establishment of Batoum’s self-government”, in მალხაზ სიორიძე, ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Malkhaz Sioridze, Essays on Batoum’s history], (Tbilisi: 2011), pp. 210-222.

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „ბათუმი საქართველო-ანტანტის ურთიერთობაში 1920 წლის პირველ ნახევარში, [Malkhaz Sioridze, “Batoum in the relations between Georgia-Entente in the first half of 1920”], in მალხაზ სიორიძე, ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Malkhaz Sioridze, Essays on Batoum’s history], (Tbilisi: 2011), pp. 172-190.

- ვ. სიჭინავა, ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში [V. Sitchinava, From the history of Batoum’s integration with Russia and socio-economic development 1878-1907], (Batoum: 1958).

- Сборник договоров России с другими государствами (1856-1917), [Collection of Russia’s agreements with other states 1856-1917], (Moscow: 1952).

- ო. თურმანიძე, რუსეთ- ოსმალეთის 1877-1878 წლების ომი და სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ საქართველოს დაბრუნება [O. Turmanidze, “Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878 and the return of southwestern Georgia”], in the Essays on the history of southwestern Georgia.

Ø ო. თურმანიძე, რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია [O. Turmanidze, «The system of the Russian administration and the colonization of the region»], in Essays on the history of southwestern Georgia.

Ø А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Essays on Churuk-Su and Batoum], (Tbilisi: 1879).


 

Ελληνική Γλώσσα [in greek language]

Websites:

- http://www.batumi.ge/ge/?page=show&sec=2 (επίσημη ιστοσελίδα του δημαρχείου της πόλης του Βατούμ)

- http://batumicc.ge/index.php?lang=1&page=menu&top_menu=1&l_menu=9 (επίσημη ιστοσελίδα του Συμβουλίου του Βατούμ)

- http://www.hrono.ru/dokum/191_dok/19180303brest.php (πλήρες κείμενο της Συνθήκης του Brest)

- http://oldbatumi.wordpress.com (στην κατηγορία «Από τα βρετανικά αρχεία»)

- http://pomnipro.ru/memorypage3273/biography (Ρωσική ιστοσελίδα αποκλειστικά με βιογραφικά στοιχεία των αποθνησκόντων, όχι πάντα, επώνυμων ατόμων)

- http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10157/page/347/mode/1up (Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (Εγκυκλοπαιδικό λεξικό του Brogkauz και Efron), τόμος XIIIА (26), (Αγία Πετρούπολη: 1890-1907)

- http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3182/10171/ (Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона (Εγκυκλοπαιδικό λεξικό του Brogkauz και Efron), τόμος Том XXА (40), (Αγία Πετρούπολη: 1890-1907)

- http://www.runivers.ru/lib/book3029/9496/ (Акты собранные Кавказской археографической комиссией (Έγγραφα συγκεντρωμένα από την Παλαιογραφική Επιτροπή του Καυκάσου), τ. 10 (X), (Τιφλίδα: 1885).

Archival sources:

- ΚΚΙΑΓ: Κεντρικά Κρατικά Ιστορικά Αρχεία της Γεωργίας, Αρχείο 1864, Κατάλογος 1, Φάκελος 24, έγγραφο 109 στα ρωσικά. Όλος ο φάκελος εμπεριέχει έγγραφα του Υπουργείου Εξωτερικών της Γεωργιανής Δημοκρατίας (1920)

- ΚΚΙΑΓ: Αρχείο 416, Κατάλογος 3, Φάκελος 820.

Bibliography:

- Акты собранные Кавказской археографической комиссией (Έγγραφα συγκεντρωμένα από την Παλαιογραφική Επιτροπή του Καυκάσου), τ. 10 (X), Τιφλίδα 1885.

- ა. ავალიანი, მიწათმფლობელობის ფორმები აჭარაში [A. Avaliani, Τύποι γαιοκτησίας στην Ατζαρία], (Βατούμ: 1960).

- ნ. ვარშანიძე, „ბათუმის ოლქი რუსულ ადმინისტრაციულ სისტემაში (1879-1900 წლები“ [N. Varshanidze, «Το Okrug του Βατούμ στο διοικητικό σύστημα της Ρωσίας (1879-1900)»], საისტორიო მაცნე (Ιστορικό μηνύτωρ) 11 (2002) ბსუ- Κρατικό Πανεπιστήμιο του Βατούμ.

- Батум и его окрестности [Βατούμ και τα περίχωρά του], (Βατούμ: 1906).

- В. М. Грибовский, Государственное устройство и управление Российской империи [V. M. Gribovsky, Κρατική οργάνωση και διοίκηση της ρωσικής αυτοκρατορίας], (Οδησσός: 1912).

- Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Εγκυκλοπαιδικό λεξικό του Brogkauz και Efron], τόμος XIIIА (26), (Αγία Πετρούπολη: 1890-1907).

Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона [Εγκυκλοπαιδικό λεξικό του Brogkauz και Efron], τόμος XXА (40), (Αγία Πετρούπολη: 1890-1907).

- Кавказский календарь на 1879 [Ημερολόγιο του Καυκάσου για το έτος 1879], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Εκδοθέν από τη Γενική Διοίκηση του Τοποτηρητή του Καυκάσου], (Τιφλίδα: 1878), σ. 518.

Кавказский календарь на 1880 [Ημερολόγιο του Καυκάσου για το έτος 1880], изданный Главным Управлением Наместника Кавказского [Εκδοθέν από τη Γενική Διοίκηση του Τοποτηρητή του Καυκάσου], (Τιφλίδα: 1879).

- თ. კომახიძე, ქალაქ ბათუმის დაგეგმარებისა და განაშენიანების ისტორია [T. Komakhidze, Ιστορία σχεδιασμού και ανέγερσης διάφορων κτηρίων της πόλης του Βατούμ], βιβλίο 6ο, (Βατούμ: 2000).

- ტ. კოპალეიშვილი, „საქალაქო თვითმმარველობის გამოცხადება ბათუმში 1888 წ.“ [T. Kopaleishvili, «Ανακήρυξη της αστικής αυτοδιοίκησης στο Βατούμ το 1888»], საისტორიო მაცნე (Ιστορικό μηνύτωρ) 11 (2002) ბსუ- Κρατικό Πανεπιστήμιο του Βατούμ.

- D. Lieven (ed.), Cambridge History of Russia, vol. II (Imperial Russia 1689-1917), (Cambridge University Press: 2006).

- К. Маркс-Ф. Енгельс, Сочинения [Κ. Μαρξ-Φ. Έγκελς Έργα], τόμος 9ος (Μόσχα: 1957).

- Ι. С. Месхи, «Очерк развития батумского городского хозяйства» [I. S. Meskhi, «Δοκίμιο για την ανάπτυξη δημοτικής διοίκησης του Βατούμ»], στο Батум и его окрестности [Το Βατούμ και τα περίχωρά του], (Βατούμ: 1906).

- ს. მესხი, წერილები აჭარაზე [S. Meskhi, Δημοσιεύματα για την Ατζαρία], στο რ. სურმანიძე [R. Surmanidze επιμ.-σχόλια-παρατηρήσεις-ευρετήρια], (Βατούμ: 2000).

- А. Н. Петров, (генерал-майор/ στρατηγός-ταγματάρχης), Русская военная сила [A. N. Petrov, Ρωσική Στρατιωτική Ισχύς], τ. 2ος (Αυτοκρατορική Ρωσία από το 1689 μέχρι το 1891), (Μόσχα: 1892).

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „ბათუმის თავისუფალ ქალაქად და ნავსადგურად გამოცხადების ისტორიისთვის (1878-1920)“, [Malkhaz Sioridze, «Για την ιστορία της ανακήρυξης του Βατούμ ως ελεύθερης πόλης και Ελεύθερου λιμανιού (1878-1920)»], στο ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Malkhaz Sioridze, Δοκίμια για την ιστορία του Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 2011), σ. 11-28.

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „საქალაქო თვითმმართველობის შექმნა ბათუმში“, [Malkhaz Sioridze «Δημιουργία της αυτοδιοίκησης στο Βατούμ»], στο მალხაზ სიორიძე, ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [Malkhaz Sioridze, Δοκίμια για την ιστορία του Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 2011), σ. 210-222.

- მალხაზ სიორიძე, „ბათუმი საქართველო-ანტანტის ურთიერთობაში 1920 წლის პირველ ნახევარში“, [Malkhaz Sioridze, «Βατούμ στις σχέσεις Γεωργίας-Αντάντ το πρώτο μισό του 1920»], στο მ. სიორიძე, მალხაზ სიორიძე, ნარკვევები ბათუმის ისტორიიდან [M. Sioridze ,Δοκίμια για την ιστορία του Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 2011), σ. 172-190.

- ვ. სიჭინავა, ბათუმის ისტორიიდან (რუსეთთან შეერთება და სოციალურ-ეკონომიური განვითარება 1878-1907 წლებში [V. Sitchinava, Από την ιστορία του Βατούμ ενσωμάτωση με τη Ρωσία και κοινωνικο-οικονομική ανάπτυξη 1878-1907], (Βατούμ: 1958).

- Сборник договоров России с другими государствами (1856-1917), [Συλλογή συμφωνιών της Ρωσίας με άλλα κράτη (1856-1917)], (Μόσχα: 1952).

- ო. თურმანიძე, „რუსეთ- ოსმალეთის 1877-1878 წლების ომი და სამხრეთ-დასავლეთ საქართველოს დაბრუნება [O. Turmanidze, «Ρωσο-οθωμανικός πόλεμος του 1877-1878 και η επιστροφή της Νοτιοδυτικής Γεωργίας»], στο Δοκίμια για την ιστορία της ΝΔ Γεωργίας.

- ო. თურმანიძე, „რუსული მმართველობის სისტემა და მხარის კოლონიზაცია [O. Turmanidze, «Το σύστημα της ρωσικής διοίκησης και ο εποικισμός της περιοχής»], στο Δοκίμια για την ιστορία της Νοτιοδυτικής Γεωργίας.

- А. Френкель, Очерки Чурук-Су и Ватума [A. Frenkel, Δοκίμια για το Churuk-Su και Βατούμ], (Τιφλίδα: 1879).


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