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Varna


The consulates    EN

Author: ROUSSEV IVAN

France: The French Vice Consulate (sous commissariat) was opened up in Varna by a decree from September 16, 1802. In the first period of its existence (1802–1814) it resided mainly in Istanbul and was headed successively by four diplomats. The French Vice Consulate in Varna was restored on March 25, 1843, after major efforts on the part of its holder – Francois-Gustave Olive, who had been residing in Varna already from August 1842. From the 1840s to the 1870s the French Vice Consulate in Varna was directed by traders and later by professional diplomats. On October 15, 1915 the diplomatic relations between Bulgaria and France were suspended and the French Vice Consulate in Varna was closed down[1].

Austria: The Austrian Vice Consulate in Varna was inaugurated on February 13, 1845, when an official document – vikyalet decree – arrived from Istanbul. In 1898, this vice consulate was elevated to the status of a consulate.

Greece: The Greek Vice Consulate in Varna was opened up in 1845. In 1905 it was elevated to the status of a consulate. In 1913, due to the outbreak of the war between Bulgaria and Greece the diplomatic relations between the two countries were suspended and the Consulate was closed. It was restored in 1914.

Sardinia (Italy): The Vice Consulate of Sardinia in Varna was opened up in October 1845 with holder Louis Navoni. Subsequently it became the Vice Consulate of Italy. In 1891, it was reduced to the status of a consular agency with territorial jurisdiction covering the district of Varna. A few years later its status was restored. On July 1, 1914 the Italian Vice Consulate was elevated into a consulate. On September 22, 1915 the office was closed due to the severed diplomatic relations between the two countries.

Russia: In April 1848 Russia opened up an honorary vice consulate in Varna headed by Luka Svilarich. During the Crimean War (1853–1856) the activity of this vice consulate was suspended but it was restored again in December 1856. In 1871 the post was reduced into a consular agency with jurisdiction over the district of Varna and partly Shumen. In 1878, it was again elevated to the status of a vice consulate. Closed doors on September 22, 1915 with the entry of Bulgaria in World War I as an adversary of Russia.

Belgium: In early February 1848 a Belgian consular agency headed by Horatio Markopoulo was opened in Varna. In 1856 it was elevated to the status of a consulate.

United Kingdom: A British consular office was opened in Varna in 1847 and reduced to the status of a vice consulate in 1864. This vice consulate was closed down during World War I and was restored in 1920.

Prussia (Germany): The Prussian Vice Consulate in Varna was established in 1856. From the outset it was headed by Emil Reiser, who had settled and founded a trading house in the town in 1854. Subsequently, The Prussian Vice Consulate was elevated to the status of a consulate (in 1869) and became the German Consulate (in 1871). At the end of 19th c. the jurisdiction of the consulate covered the Province of Varna with the following districts: Balchik, Varna, Dobrich, Kurtboubar and Provadia, and in 1905 it was expanded by Eskidzhumaya (present day Targovishte), Osmanpazar (present day Omurtag), Popovo, Shumen, and Preslav districts.

Iran: The Iranian Vice Consulate in Varna was opened in early 1880 and was probably closed down during the wars in the second decade of the 20th century.

Spain: The Spanish Vice Consulate in Varna was established in 1867 and it was closed down in 1939.

Sweden: The Swedish Vice Vonsulate in Varna was opened up in 1854 with its first representative being the German merchant Emil Reiser. The Swedish-Norwegian vice-consulate, which in 1874-1875 serviced the area from Varna to the town Medzhidie in Northern Dobrudja, was probably closed down shortly after the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878.

Norway: From 1814 to 1905 Norway was in a union with Sweden and its interests abroad were represented by missions and diplomats uniform for both countries. The Swedish- Norwegian commercial interests in Varna were represented by a vice consulate established in 1854 and led in its early years by the German merchant Emil Reiser. The Swedish-Norwegian vice-consulate, which in 1874-1875 serviced the area from Varna to the town Medzhidie in Northern Dobrudja, was probably closed down shortly after the Russo-Turkish war of 1877–1878. A separate Norwegian honorary consulate in Varna was opened in early 1906 with holder Fridolin Tzwiki and jurisdiction over the whole of Bulgaria. The Norwegian Consulate General was established in Sofia in 1907 and the jurisdiction of the Varna Consulate was limited to the Black Sea coast. The Norwegian Consulate in Varna was closed in 1940.

Portugal: The earliest reference to the functioning of a Portuguese vice consulate in Varna dates from 1907.

Rumania: In February 1869 Dimitrie Karamfilesku was appointed as the first Romanian commercial representative (Romanian consul) in Varna. Until 1878 the residence maintained the status of a “commercial representation”, after that date it grew into a vice-consulate, from the beginning of 20th century it became a consulate and during the wars of 1912–1913 the Romanian Consulate in Varna ceased work and was eventually closed down.

Ottoman Empire (Turkey): There is evidence of the presence of a trade agent of the Ottoman Empire in Varna in 1881, although the Bulgarian government refused to recognize him. The Ottoman Commercial Agency in Varna was officially established and recognized in 1892. By 1896 it covered the entire Black Sea coast and Northeastern Bulgaria. In 1909 the residency was elevated in the status of a consulate. It was closed down in the Fall of 1912 with the declaration of the Balkan War (1912–1913) and was restored after the peace treaty was signed in Istanbul on September 16, 1913.

Holland: A Dutch vice consulate in Varna was opened up in 1868 with a jurisdiction covering the western Black Sea coast[2].

 


[1] Roussev, I. La politique menée par la France de Napoléon dans la région de la mer Noire. Le premier Consulat français en Bulgarie. – Etudes balkaniques, 2004, № 3, p. 79–107; Roussev, I. Les premiers pas de la pénétration consulaire française en Bulgarie : le consulat de Varna. – in : Enjeux politiques, économiques et militaires en mer Noire (XIVe – XXIe siècles). Edudes à la mémoire de Mihail Guboglu. Sous la direction de Faruk Bilici, Ionel Cândea, Anca Popescu, Braïla (Roumanie), 2007, p. 677–702; Денчев, Б. Варна след Освобождението. Едно закъсняло възраждане на българщината. София, 1998.

[2] Русев, И. Варна през 40-те години на XIX в. Консулското присъствие, интересни събития и проекти в града, отразени в докладите и кореспонденцията на френския вицеконсул Франсоа-Гюстав Олив. – Известия на народния музей – Варна, Т. XLII (LVII), Варна, 2006, с. 96–136; Дряновски, Б. Консулски представителства във Варна (1352–2006). Варна, 2007; Русев, И. Варна през Късното Средновековие и Възраждането (края на XІV в. – 1878 г.). – В: Русев, И., В. Плетньов. История на Варна. Т. ІІ (VII в. – 1878 г.). Изд. „Славена” – Варна, 2012, с. 548–561.


References

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Библиография:

Roussev, I. La politique menée par la France de Napoléon dans la région de la mer Noire. Le premier Consulat français en Bulgarie. – Etudes balkaniques, 2004, № 3, p. 79–107;

Roussev, I. Les premiers pas de la pénétration consulaire française en Bulgarie : le consulat de Varna. – in : Enjeux politiques, économiques et militaires en mer Noire (XIVe – XXIe siècles). Edudes à la mémoire de Mihail Guboglu. Sous la direction de Faruk Bilici, Ionel Cândea, Anca Popescu, Braïla (Roumanie), 2007, p. 677–702;

Денчев, Б. Варна след Освобождението. Едно закъсняло възраждане на българщината, София, 1998.

Русев, И. “Варна през 40-те години на XIX в. Консулското присъствие, интересни събития и проекти в града, отразени в докладите и кореспонденцията на френския вицеконсул Франсоа-Гюстав Олив” – Известия на народния музей – Варна, Т. XLII (LVII), Варна, 2006, с. 96–136;

Дряновски, Б. Консулски представителства във Варна (1352–2006), Варна, 2007; Русев, И. Варна през Късното Средновековие и Възраждането (края на XІV в. – 1878 г.). – В: Русев, И., В. Плетньов, История на Варна. Т. ІІ (VII в. – 1878 г.). Изд. „Славена” – Варна, 2012, с. 548–561.


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