Road transportation network
Author: ÖZDIS HAMDI
Legal framework-decrees: 1861,1869 Yol Nizamnamesi
Companies involved: Made by the state.
Capital invested: Estimated 200.000-250.000 kurush.
Extension of the network: proposed entry : From Ordu to Sivas
The 19th century road map of the province of Trabzon is quite weak. Even if this map gives a better view from the beginning of the 20th century onwards, still, the province of Trabzon lacks the roads that connect the sub-districts with the small towns. [i] In the 19th century, Trabzon province actually gives the impression of a worksite. The province tried to establish connections with the hinterland with roads such as the Samsun-Sivas road [ii] on one hand and Giresun-Sivas and Şebinkarahisar-Sivas roads on the other. Thus, with these roads that would later on be given to use, the relations’ network of the province of Trabzon would widen even more. The connection to be created with the province of Sivas, which was at a central location of Anatolia, was of great importance from the point of view of the hinterland of Trabzon and of course of the Eastern Black Sea. The emphasis on the fact that the Ordu-Sivas road, the construction of which began in the 1880s, would be at a key location of the “Anatolian continent” is important in this context and a determination of that era. [iii] The English, who were aware of this importance paid close attention to the construction of the roads in the province of Trabzon. The aspect that interested the English in the construction of the Sivas-Ordu road was commerce, because the English mining company The Asia Minor Mining Company Limited experienced losses due to the delays caused by the bad condition of the roads >[iv], which led to the inability to transport the minerals (for example silvery lead) to the port with wagons [v] and mules. This issue had led to a series of correspondence. [vi]
The evaluation of the condition of the roads in Trabzon in the 1880s by Sırrı Paşa, the vali at the time, has been previously presented. [vii] While the vali’s view on the road issue overlapped in some aspects with local opinions, the Sublime Porte (or, to be more precise, the Ministry for Public Works) thought differently and this created occasional obstacles to the construction of the road. In other words, while the vali gave priority and importance to the road construction, the Ministry of Public Works procrastinated. [viii] Thus, the vali Sırrı Paşa embarked on the road works by his personal efforts and carried out the construction of the road by involving the people and the local notables in the job. And he was greatly successful at that. In this respect, it can be said that the Sivas-Ordu road was a work accomplished thanks to his personal efforts. At the inauguration of the Ordu-Sivas road Sırrı Paşa delivered a speech and mentioned some important historical notes. According to the Pasha’s speech the construction began 15 years previously (in 1869) and the road, that until 1882 was only 5-6-kilometres’ long, was completed within the last two years with the contribution of the notables and the local people by working 120 days, reaching 90 km in the year 1884. We do not have clear numbers about the cost of the road. However, the numbers published in the Trabzon Vilayeti Gazetesi newspaper about the money spent on certain transactions (materials such as powder, wick and iron) was a matter of question. According to this, the amount given by Captan Giorgi, [ix] responsible for the control of the Giresun road construction, is recorded to be 180 kurush. [x] It is not possible to determine whether this money was spent in 120 days or during a longer period of time. According to information coming from the English consul, 14.000 people were employed in the construction of the road over a period of a month and a half. [xi]
There was a number of different factors that hampered the construction of the Ordu-Sivas road, more important of which being its passing from high mountains, creek banks and thick forests. [xii] In this framework, it is necessary to briefly touch on the geography of the region. One of the best expressions with which to define the geography of the province of Trabzon belongs to the author of a yearbook. The writer compares the province of Trabzon to Switzerland because of the particularities of its geography and climate. With its ever-present snow on the hilltops and its high mountains, with its pine-tree forests that go on for hours, its dramatic cliffs, its rugged and steep rocks, with its valleys and hills, “the province of Trabzon is Anatolia’s equivalent of Switzerland”. [xiii] Thus, it was particularly difficult to make a road in this region with the circumstances of the 19th century.
The reasons that made the road construction difficult were not limited to the geographical features. It is important to remember that amongst the factors that restricted or complicated the road construction were financial, political, local or personal conflicts. Therefore, road works in the Ottoman Empire were for the most part problematic, and those problems presented themselves in different shapes. [xiv] At the same time, we come across powerful testimonies about the political and financial clashes between both the local notables themselves and them with the administrators. [xv] Thus, it is possible to talk about a power struggle or rivalry about the road. According to what we learn from the English archival documents, such a rivalry was also reflected on the construction of the Sivas-Ordu road. [xvi] Here, it is rather the mention of rivalry and tension between two valis, Rifat Paşa from Sivas and Sırrı Paşa from Trabzon. Even though the road that led to the borders of Trabzon (Şebinkarahisar-Sivas) was completed in 1884, the vali of Sivas Rifat Paşa presented it as having finished earlier and tried to prove to the Sublime Porte that the vali of Trabzon Sırrı Paşa was unsuccessful, by accusing him of inability to make a road and, thus, incompetence; as for Sırrı Paşa, he accelerated the road works in order to prove that the attack by the Sıvas vali was not grounded and was successful. [xvii] This rivalry, which was reflected in the newspapers, became news in the Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi of the time. [xviii] Another aspect that came to light with this conflict was the corruption related to the road. According to articles published in the newspaper, there were some irregularities during the construction of the road. These claims were recorded in a letter signed by Captan Giorgi, who was supervising the Giresun road construction. It is highly possible that this letter was written following Sırrı Paşa’s guidelines, because the newspaper was under his direct control. Besides, English consul Biliotti shows Sırrı Paşa in the address of the letter. [xix] The numbers in the letter concerning the bribes and corruption are very striking. It is stated that a million kurush were shared/stolen amongst the workers on the site, starting with the road engineer. [xx] We cannot know the rest of this corruption story but we know for sure that the conflicts about roads in Trabzon and the power struggle continued until the end of the century. [xxi]
[i] See, Kudret Emiroğlu, (ed) Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1902, Cilt 22, Ankara : Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı Yayınları, 2008,s. 107
[ii] With the Samsun-Sivas road, that would open later on, the relations’ network of Trabzon province would widen even more. See Kemal Karpat, Türkiye’de Toplumsal Dönüsüm, transl. Abdülkerim Sönmez, Ankara: İmge Yay. 2003. p. 98.
[iii] Sırrı Pasa in his own book (Mektubât-ı Sırrı Pasa) writes that, with the opening of the Sivas-Ordu road, commerce spread to a large medium and that it connected Sivas with the Black Sea coast. Sırrı Pasa, ibid, p. 26.
[iv] The Ordu-Sivas road that was completed in 1884 was in a “dilapidated state” in 1902. The road, that did not undergo any repairs or maintenance for a long time had, according to the author of the yearbook of Trabzon province, lost any importance for the government. See Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1902, Cilt 22, Ankara : Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı Yayınları, 2008, p. 188.
[v] A kind of horse-drawn carriage. Vehicles that worked between the port and the mining operation and carried mine loads. For further information see Trabzon-Erzurum road template.
[vi] See, FO 424/141, “To Earl Graffin to Earl Dufferin”, Constantinople May 3 1884; Hugh Wyndham “Mr. Wyndham to Earl Granville”, December 2, 1884.
[vii] See, Trabzon-Erzurum road template.
[viii]Prime-Ministerial Ottoman Archive, Şura-yı Devlet (BOA-ŞD.)1837/9. Additionally, for the stopping of the road construction by the Ministry of Public Works for political reasons see Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi, 20 Ağustos 1300/ 1 Eylül 1884, p. 2.
[ix] In the Trabzon Vilayeti Gazetesi he is referred to as “Yorgi Efendi, head of the Giresun Public Works Commission Kapudan Yorgi Efendi” Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi, 20 Ağustos 1300- 1 September 1884, p. 2.
[x]Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi, 20 Ağustos 1300- 1 September 1884, p. 3.
[xi] FO 195/1488, 13 September 1884, p. 162.
[xii] Sırrı Pasa, Mektubat-ı Sırrı Paşa, İstanbul: 1303, p. 25-26.
[xiii] See, Kudret Emiroğlu, (ed) Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1902, Cilt 22, Ankara : Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri
Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı Yayınları, 2008, p. 66.
[xiv] Together with the difficult geography, the tough climate and the floods resulting from heavy rainfall led to damaged roads and to the need for their continuous repairs.
[xv] For the economic competition over the transit road see, Hamdi Özdiş, “Falling afar from the highway: “Road dispute” in 19th. Century Gümüşhane” Kebikeç, 30, 2010.
[xvi] See, FO 195/1488, September 13, 1884.
[xvii] English consul Biliotti mentions Sırrı Paşa’s panic faced with this move by the vali. See FO 195/1488, 13 September 1884.
[xviii] The tension and the rivalry were especially about who would finish the road first and who would make the intersection that cut the two roads. Even though the two valis met in Giresun and discussed the issue, the problem could not be solved. Together with the intersection, the point which they did not reach an understanding on was also who was going to build this 6-mile road. At this point the Sublime Porte had to step in. See, FO 195/1488, 13 September 1884, p. 158,163. Additionally, it can be seen that the rivalry and fight was continued by two provincial newspapers as it is understood by a piece of news in the Trabzon Vilayeti Gazetesi. As for Sivas Vilayet Gazetesi, it used an argument defending Rifat Paşa. See, Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi, 20 Ağustos 1300- 1 September 1884. For the map showing the intersection see Appendix 1.
[xix] See, FO 195/1488, 13 September 1884.
[xx] “Be that an engineer or a conductor or a peak-user or all of the head-workers were bribed and spread the news to the region that the workers made the road...” See, Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi, 20 Ağustos 1300/ 1 Eylül 1884, p. 3.
[xxi] See Hamdi Özdiş, “Falling afar from the highway: “Road dispute” in 19th century Gümüşhane”, Kebikeç, 30, (2010), p. 122.
Legal framework-decrees: 1861, 1869 Yol Nizamnamesi
Companies involved: Constructed by state
Capital invested: Estimated 13.000.000 Kurush [i]
Extension of the network: From Trabzon to Erzurum
Until the 19th century, the works related to roads in the Ottoman Empire took place with the mediation of the derbents, the lodges, the pious foundations or other institutions. [ii] However, after the Tanzimat (1839), there appeared regulations regarding the roads and the first official direction was issued in 1853. [iii] After this, the 1861 and 1869 Road Laws came into force in a more detailed manner. With these laws, the road system acquired a specific order. [iv]
Even though the condition of the roads inside the province of Trabzon appeared to be better in 1902, [v] they were not that clean-cut in the 1880s. This situation was expressed in a clear and striking manner by the vali Sırrı Paşa himself. According to the Pasha, the situation was grave and had to be resolved as soon as possible. Talking about the condition of the roads in the whole of the province in the 1880s, Sırrı Paşa, compared the province of Trabzon to his experiences in his previous posts as vali and said that “There is a place inside the divinely protected dominions that has no roads and that is Trabzon”. This is truly an important claim and reflects the legitimacy of the people’s complaints. The rest of the vali’s claim about the condition of the roads is also important: “In the interior of the province, except for the notorious Erzurum road, not only a cart-road like a chaussée, but there is not even a smooth, ordinary animal-path that occurred by a human surgical operation. The people who are obliged to go from a small town to the villages, from one small town to the other and even to a neighbouring sub-district, they go through such trouble and difficulties traversing creeks and hills that it’s impossible to describe if you haven’t seen it with your own eyes”.” [vi]
Therefore, as suggested by the vali too, the issue of the roads had to be resolved as soon as possible. Especially as far as communication with other provinces and Iran was concerned, priority had to be given to the construction of the more crucial Trabzon-Erzurum road. The importance of the construction of the Trabzon-Erzurum [vii] road, which accelerated in the second half of the 19th century, for the regional commerce, farming and agriculture is obvious. [viii] The transportation networks of the cities in the Black Sea coastline with Trabzon as well as the access to its hinterland (especially East Anatolia) and the trade with Iran, were vital. [ix] With the Tbilisi road in Russia giving an aspect of competition, this road gained even more importance. Additionally, this road was particularly important for the region, from a military perspective, [x] in the case of a potential conflict with Russia. [xi] The opening of the Süveyş Channel in 1869 affected the Trabzon-Erzurum [xii] road and consequently affected financially and commercially Trabzon itself. Because of these developments, from the 1870s onwards, Trabzon, which was the most active merchant city after Istanbul, started staying in the background. [xiii]
The construction of the road was first undertaken at the time of the vali of Trabzon Hazinedarzade Abdullah Paşa (1844), but it is understood that it remained poor and incomplete. [xiv] When the importance of a 334-kilometre Trabzon-Erzurum road [xv] was grasped, the foundation construction was done between 1850 and 1871 and in the beginning of 1871 car transportation from Trabzon to Erzurum became possible. [xvi] We should note that, during those years, the road construction faced interruptions due to climate and financial reasons and that it was completed gradually. Even though there were changes in the route [xvii] for various reasons, the road was finally completed in the end of 1872. [xviii]
The road, which had an estimated cost of 13 million kurush, was assigned to the vali of the time Fosfor Mustafa Sıdkı Paşa, who bid to construct it for 20.000 kese. [xix] Together with the financial support [xx] of local notables, the local people were also asked to help in the road construction [xxi] voluntarily or by forced labour. [xxii]
We know from witnesses of the time that the transport and access to the road was carried out mainly by camels and camel caravans, horses or mules and sprung cars (Fuorgon ve mekâriler). [xxiii]
Regarding the value of the Trabzon-Erzurum road from a financial aspect, it is possible to make an evaluation and comparison with the trade conducted with Iran, taking as a basis W. Gifford Palgrave’s 1868 and Longworth’s 1903 reports,.
According to the data given in 1868 by Palgrave “by this route arrives and passes at least one-half of the commerce between Europe and Persia. For the Persian trade the principal means of transport are pack-horses, though camels, oxen, and donkeys are occasionally employed. The following transport statistics will help us to form an idea of the magnitude of this traffic: Pack-horses, estimated yearly to and fro, at about 60,000, Camels, about 2000, Oxen, about 3000, Donkeys about 6000. The principal articles exported from Persia are, tobacco, silk, raisins, carpets, shawls, writing reeds, some skins, and other minor articles of Persian produce or manufacture. The principal articles imported are cotton cloth, printed and plain calico, flannel, and the like chiefly, if not exclusively, English. Tea (English), Sugar (French), and sundries, such as glass-ware, hard-ware, crockery, articles or of ornament, and so forth, mostly French, Belgian, or German manufacture.”[xxiv]
The equivalent of all this huge commercial traffic to (£) 1.300.000 (Pounds) is again recorded by Consul Palgrave. “The commission business of this transport is chiefly carried on at Trebizond by 11 houses, three of which are European (one being Swiss, and two Hellene Greeks), and the remaining eight, Persian. Some Turkish and Armenian houses take also a collateral share.” [xxv]
According to Longworth’s 1902 financial data, despite a serious drop observed in the number of animals used in the transportation, there was a rise in the numbers of imports and exports to/from England. Camels 5000, Horses 400, Mules 150, Donkeys 2000. 10 4-horse-drawn wagons, 100 2-horse-drawn wagon-carts and ox-carts should be added to these figures. The British imports being £1.487.300 in a 5-year period that covers the years 1896-1900, during which there was not any change in the basic imports and exports of goods, the foreign imports (except England) were 1.093.700, as it is shown in the table. As for the British exports, they are recorded in the same table to be £82,000, and the foreign £906,700. Of course, we should clarify that these figures have been acquired from the trade taking place with Iran via Trabzon. [xxvi]
[i] This is the estimated cost figures for the construction of the Trabzon-Bayburt-Erzurum road in three years. Tozlu, p. 74
[ii] Cengiz Orhonlu, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Derbent Teşkilatı, İstanbul Ünviversitesi Edebiyat Fak. Yay., İstanbul, 1967.
[iii] Selahattin Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu, 1850-1900”, Ph.D. Thesis, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Sos. Bil. Enstitüsü, Erzurum, 1996.
[iv] Tozlu, p. 9.
[v] According to the 1902 Yearbook, the Province of Trabzon had a road network of 1640 km. See Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi 1902, ed. Kudret Emiroğlu, p. 107.
[vi] Sırrı Pasa, Mektubat-ı Sırrı Paşa, İstanbul, 1303, p. 86.
[vii] For a map of the Trabzon-Erzurum road see Appendix 1. Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayburt Yolu”, p. 464.
[viii] A. Üner Turgay, “Trade and Merchants of Nineteenth-Century Trabzon: Elements of Ethnic Conflict”, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, I, edt. Benjamin Braude-Bernard Lewis, New York, 1982; see also A. Üner Turgay, “Trabzon”, Doğu Akdeniz’de Liman Kentleri (1800-1914) ed. Çağlar Keyder, Y.Eyüp Özveren-D. Quataert, İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 1994.
[ix] Charles Issawi, “The Tabriz-Trabzon Trade 1830-1900: Rise and Decline a Route” International Journal Of Middle East Studies, 1970; The Economic History of Turkey 1800-1914, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.
[x] The transport of military and logistics material to Erzincan, which was the centre of the Fourth Army, passed from this road. See Kudret Emiroğlu (ed Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi 1894, 15. Cilt, Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı, Mayıs, 2007, Ankara. p.174.
[xi] This situation became concretely obvious with the Ottoman-Russian War (1877-78). Kemal Karpat, Türkiye’de Toplumsal Dönüsüm, transl. Abdülkerim Sönmez, Ankara: İmge Yay. 2003, p. 98.
[xii] For a map that shows the part of the Trabzon-Erzurum road until Bayburt see Appendix 2. FO 524/25, 25 June 1903, Longworth, p. 846.
[xiii] The commerce between Iran and England in the beginning of the 1880s was carried out from the ports in the Persian Gulf and this affected Trabzon greatly. The traffic in Trabzon reached a halt and the markets were directly affected. In the 1890s the merchants in Trabzon complained about the terrible condition of the port. See Suraiya Faroqhi, “Tarabzun”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume X, New Edition, Leiden, 2000, p.218.
[xiv] Tozlu, s.58
[xv] The number of 334 km given about the Trabzon-Erzurum road seems to be different than the information in the sources. See Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu” p. 82-83. According to information given by the war reporter for The Times and Daily News the length of the road was 184 miles, equivalent to about 300 km. See C.B.Norman, Armenia and the Campaign of 1877, London, 1878. p.19-30. According to English consul W. G. Palgrave the road measured 200 miles, whereas, based on Longworth’s report it was 198 miles. FO 881/1592, January 1868, W. Gifford Palgrave, Report on the Provinces of Trebizond, Sivas Kastemouni and part of Angora, By Mr. Consul W. Gifford Palgrave, January, 1868, (Turkey, Anatolian Provinces) p. 8; 524/25, 25 June 1903, Longworth, p. 844.
[xvi] In the period between 1857-1869 174 kilometres of unclassified roads (Chaussée) were on the Trabzon-Erzurum road. Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu” p. 82. English consul Longworth writes that the construction of the road that extended to Tabreez began in 1865 and finished in 1872. See, FO 524/25, 25 June 1902, H. Z. Longworth, “Reports on the Persian Transit Trade through Trebizond”, p.839.
[xvii] For statistical data concerning the roads in the province of Trabzon on different dates see Kudret Emiroğlu (ed) Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1902, Cilt 20, p.114-117.
[xviii] Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu”, p. 76, 82,84.
[xix] Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu” p.76.
[xx] Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu” p.79.
[xxi] We know that French engineers worked in the construction of the Trabzon-Erzurum road. FO 195/812, 15 May 1867.
[xxii] In order to motivate the people, the Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi announced that the persons who gave support to the construction of roads in their own towns or villages or who repaired their roads would be awarded. See Trabzon Vilayeti Gazetesi, No. 1296, 1 Mart 1314/13 Mart 1898. p.1
[xxiii] For a table showing the animals used for the transport and transportation in the Trabzon-Erzurum road see Appendix 2. FO 524/25, 7 July 1885, Longworth, “Letter from Consul Longworth to William White”, p.8
[xxiv] Palgrave, Turkey, Anatolian Provinces, 1868, p. 8
[xxv] Palgrave, Turkey, Anatolian Provinces, 1868, p. 8
[xxvi] FO 524/25, 25 June 1902, Longworth, “Reports on the Persian Transit...”, p. 848.
Prime-Ministerial Ottoman Archives /Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA)
Şura-yı Devlet (BOA-ŞD.)
The National Archives, Foreign Office (FO)
FO 195/1488; FO 195-1457; FO 424/141
Emiroğlu, Kudret (ed) Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi [Yearbook of the Province of Trabzon], 1902, Cilt 22, Ankara : Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı Yayınları, 2008.
Kemal Karpat, Türkiye’de Toplumsal Dönüşüm [Social Change in Turkey], tranl. Abdülkerim Sönmez, Ankara: İmge Yay. 2003.
Sırrı Pasa. Mektubat-ı Sırrı Paşa [Letters of Sırrı Paşa], İstanbul: 1303.
Özdiş, Hamdi. “Falling afar from the highway: “Road dispute” in 19th. Century Gümüşhane” Kebikeç, 30, 2010.
Trabzon Vilayet Gazetesi
The National Archives, Foreign Office (FO)
Trabzon Vilayeti Gazetesi, No. 1296, 1 Mart 1314/13 Mart 1898.
Faroqhi, Suraiya “Tarabzun”, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume X, New Edition, Leiden, 2000.
Orhonlu Cengiz, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda Derbent Teşkilatı [The Organization of Derbents in the Ottoman Empire], İstanbul Ünviversitesi Edebiyat Fak. Yay., İstanbul, 1967.
Emiroğlu Kudret (haz.) Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi 1894 [1894 Yearbook of the Province of Trabzon], 15. Cilt, Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı, Mayıs, 2007, Ankara.
Kemal Karpat, Türkiye’de Toplumsal Dönüsüm [Social Change in Turkey], transl. Abdülkerim Sönmez, Ankara: İmge Yay. 2003.
Selahattin Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu, 1850-1900 [The Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Road 1850-1900]”, Ph.D. Thesis, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Sos. Bil. Enstitüsü, Erzurum, 1996.
C.B.Norman, Armenia and the Campaign of 1877, London, 1878.
A. Üner Turgay, “Trade and Merchants of Nineteenth-Century Trabzon: Elements of Ethnic Conflict”, Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire, I, edt. Benjamin Braude-Bernard Lewis, New York, 1982.
------------------- “Trabzon”, Doğu Akdeniz’de Liman Kentleri (1800-1914) ed. Çağlar Keyder, Y.Eyüp Özveren-D. Quataert, İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 1994.
Charles Issawi, “The Tabriz-Trabzon Trade 1830-1900: Rise and Decline a Route” International Journal Of Middle East Studies, 1970; The Economic History of Turkey 1800-1914, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1980.
Appendix 1: Part of Trabzon-Eruzurum Road- From Trabzon to Baiburt. FO 195/1457
Appendix 2: Table of Pack Animals and Vehicles. Foreign Office (FO) 524/25, 25 June 1902, Longworth, “Reports on the Persian Transit...”, p. 848.
Appendix 3: Native waggon. “Fourgon”. FO 524/24
Appendix 4: Map of road from Gümüşhane to Persia. The map obtained from Selahattin Tozlu’s study. See Selahattin Tozlu, “Trabzon-Erzurum-Bayezid Yolu, 1850-1900”, Ph.D. Theses.