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Trabzon


Prisons    EN

Author: EMIROGLU KUDRET

The building of modern prisons began wtih the construction of public buildings, as previously the bureaucrats were living and working at the same place. The governors and the other officials used to rent their houses-offices where they were appointed. There is mention of a Trabzon governor office (hükümet/vali konağı) in the Ottoman archives of 1820. [1] This building had worn out by 1835 [2] and the central government decided to build a new one in 1836, one fourth of the expenses covered by the governor and the rest by the people of Trabzon. [3]

The new governor office was probably built in the first half of the 1850’s together with a modern prison next to it, as the official correspondence reveals. [4] The women, however, were still held in rented buildings. [5]

This prison which didn’t have enough room [for the prisoners] [6] was burnt down in 1858. [7] The city counsil’s general secretary (later Trabzon deputy in the first parliament of 1876), Emin Hilmi Efendi, writes that on January 7, 1858, the wooden and worn building was burnt down, but the prison’s wing where the murderers were held was stone made and the rest of the prisoners were moved there the following day. [8]

The building of the new goverment office begun immediately and the plans included the prison too. [9] The construction begun in 1865 and in 1868 the project was upgraded, together with the widening and renovation of the prison. In 1867 the city council (Mecls-i İdare) had written to İstanbul that the prison could not be so small in size [10] and that both the government office and the prison were to be expanded. [11]

This work was competed in 1883 and the province government was proud of the new edifice, as can be seen in the 13th volume of the 1888 salname: the new government office was not a two-storey building anymore, as it had been before burning down thirty years ago, and did not have a harem chamber, but it was stone made, of pleasing structure and appereance, and had all the necessary offices and departments. A new stone prison was also built together with a small mosque and fountain. Thus, the government office deserved to be called one of the grand establishments. [12]

Instead of the army, a gendarmerie and police force were now present, with a chief and 64 guardians being appointed. A director, clerks and a doctor were also in service. [13]

The Trabzon prison was so full that from time to time it was asked that prisoners from other prisons be transferred elsewhere (for examle from Erzurum to Sinop or to Diyarbakır) [14], or that those prisoners convicted after their appeals would be sent to other prisons too. [15] Prisoners were also exposed to infectious diseases [16] and riots and  [17]

During the ‘Second Constitution Revolution’ of 1908, the political prisoners were set to be freed; all prisoners were eventually freed either by the help of the people, riots or administrative orders in almost every city. In Trabzon, the governor, Ferit Bey, although he tried to resist, he was forced by the militants of the Commitee of Union and Progress and the gathering crowds, to set free the Armenian political prisoners. In the end, he was removed from his office. [18]

The prison in Trabzon, having two floors and two sections, was in a wide courtyard, with dormitories, a kitchen, a bath and workshops. There was also a correctional/technical school (ıslahhane)., In 1872, according to the 4th volume of the salnames, there was a tailor (Manok Usta) and a master carpenter (Muhammed Usta) with 13 students. [19] The students increased in time,. but after the 10th volume of 1878, there is no mention of the ıslahhane anymore. After 1892, the ıslahhane was renewed, but lost its importance along with the other improving facilities. The city prison was called ‘Merkez Hapishanesi’ (The Central Prison) since there were prisons in every administrative district (kaza) next to the administrative offices.

In 1983, the Trabzon Municipality restored the prison which now serves as the ‘Hüseyin Kazaz Kültür Merkezi’ (Cultural Center).

 


[1] “Trabzon’da Vali Hüsrev Paşa marifetiyle yapılacak olan vali sarayının (hükümet konağının) resimlerini yapmak ve inşasına nezaret etmek üzere Cani Kalfa’nın intihab ve izam olunacağı”, BOA.C.MF.80.3975 11/C/1235 (27 March 1820)

[2] “Trabzon’da yıkılmağa yüz tutan vali konağının tamiri hakkında Vali Osman Paşa’ya hitaben hüküm”, BOA. C.DH.94.4675: 15/R/1250 (15 January 1835).

[3] “Trabzon’da hükümet konağının dörtte bir masrafı vali ve diğer kısımları ahalinden alınmak üzere yeniden tamiri”, BOA.HAT.599.29339: 29/Z/1251 (16 April 1836).

[4] “Trabzon Hapishanesi’nde bulunan suçlulardan hasta olanların hekime gösterilmesiyle tedavi masraflarının mal sandığından verilmesi talebi”, BOA.MVL.328.92: 6/C/1267 (8 April 1851); “Alyon ve Baltacı bazerganlara havale olunan akçenin tediyesi ile Trabzon’da hapishane inşası ve Mustafa Ağa’nın hukuku hakkındaki mazbataların sunulduğuna dair Ticaret ve Maliye Nezareti’ne gönderilen yazı”, BOA. A.}MKT.MHM.23.49: 28/N/1266 (27 July 1851)

[5] “Trabzon’da nisa hapishanesi için Ahmed Efendi’ye verilecek icar”, BOA.MVL.342.76: 18/Za/1270 (12 August 1854).

[6] “Trabzon Hapishanesi’nde çok sayıda suçlu bulunduğu, davaların zamanda halledilmediği, kavaslara zaptiye maaşı verildiği ve kazalarda tastir olunan buyrulduların hususî memurlarla gönderilip yüksek ücret alındığı hususundaki iddiaların mahkeme huzurunda ispat edilip edilemeyeceğinin bildirilmesi”, BOA. A.}MKT.UM.286.21: 29/L/1273 (22 June 1857).

[7] “Trabzon Vali Konağı’nın yanmasında, Said Bey ve Mahmud Efendi’den şüphe edildiğinden tahkikine dair yazılan emirnameye cevaben Tahkik Memuru Mehmed Latif Efendi’nin tahriratı ve Trabzon Meclisinin mazbatası”, BOA.MVL.580.29: 16/Ca/1275 (22 December 1858).

[8] Emin Hilmi 1293 (1876), p. 272: “… kaza-i kahhani kabilinden olarak işbu Cemadielevvelin yirmi birinci Perşembe gecesi saat sekiz buçuk sularında Trabzon hükümet konağının alt katında bulunan burçlu cephanesi odalarının birinden kazaen ateş zuhur ile mezkûr konağın ebniyesi kâmilen ahşaptan yapılmış olarak zaten dahi pek ziyade köhnelenip hatta daire-i dahiliyesi oturulmaz halde meşref harab ve kasur mahalleri dahi kibrit gibi… tahrirat kalemini ateşin o anda ihata eylemesinden nâşi mezkûr odada bulunan kuyudâtın bazılarıyla o emirnâme ve müsvedât-ı mafuta kâmilen mühatarrik olarak kurtarılamamış ve erbâb-ı cinayete mahsus olan diğer bir hapishanenin duvarları kargir olarak yanmadığı cihetle mahbusîn-i merkûme ferdası günü kâmilen oraya nakl edilmiştir…”

[9] “Trabzon’da hapishane inşasına dair Maliye takriri”, BOA.MVL.582.74: 4/B/1275 (7 February 1859); “Trabzon’da yapılacak hapishane için alınacak arsanın fiyatının ve inşaat masrafının tahkik ve iş'arı”, BOA. A.}MKT.MVL. 105.49: 23/B/1275 (26 February 1859); “Trabzon’da yeniden yapılacak hapishanenin inşasına ruhsat verilmesi”, BOA. A.}MKT.MHM.158.2.6/Za/1275 (7 June 1859).

[10] “Hapishanelerin dar olmaması hakkında Trabzon Meclisi’nin mazbatası”, BOA.MVL.735.80: 12/S/1284 (15 June 1867).

[11] “Trabzon hükümet konağının inşası ve hapishanesinin genişletilmesi”, BOA.A.}MKT.MHM. 390.99: 11/Ca/1284 (10 September 1867).

[12]Trabzon Vilayet Salnamesi, 1305/1888, V. 13, p. 185: “Trabzon hükümet konağı takriben otuz sene mukaddem muhterik olmak hasebiyle ondan sonra başlamış olan şimdiki hükümet konağı gerçi eskisi gibi iki kat olmak üzere bina edildiği gibi harem dairesi de ika olunmamış idiyse de kargir olan şimdiki binası da pek metin ve şekil ve heyeti dilnişin olup lüzumu kadar devâir ve taksimâtı dahi hâvi olduktan başka şehrin kalgahında vaki olduğuna ve bir kaç sene mukaddem dairesi dahilinde müceddiden bir bab-ı kargir hapishane ile bir de şadırvan be mesci-i şerif bina edilmiş olmasına nazaran zikr olunan hükümet konağı şimdiki tarz ve şekliyle beraber yine müessesât-ı âliyeden addolunabilir.”

[13] “Trabzon vilayeti hapishane ve tevkifhaneleri için birer müdür, katip, tabib ve sergardiyan ile altmış dört nefer gardiyan tayini ve maaşlarının 1300 senesi bütçesine dahil edilmesi”, BOA.DH.MKT.1345.25: 23/L/1301 (16 August 1884).

[14] “Trabzon Vilayeti Hapishanesi dolu olduğundan Erzurum’dan gönderilen suçluların Sinop veyahud Diyarbakır’a gönderilmesi hususunda gereğinin yapılması”, BOA.DH.MKT.1875.50: 4/Ra/1309 (8 October 1891).

[15] “Trabzon Hapishanesi’nin yetersizliği nedeniyle temyizden kararları çıkan mahkumların Sinop Hapishanesi’ne gönderilmesi”, BOA.ZB.311.102: 17/Ağ/1324 (30 August 1908).

[16] As an example; “Trabzon Hapishanesi’nde zuhur eden veba hastalığından dolayı alınan sihhi tedbirlere dair”, BOA. A.}MKT.MHM.569.7: 19/C/1324 (10 August 1906).

[17] “Trabzon Nisa Hapishanesi için kiralanan hanenin ücretinin vilayet muvazenesine resmi günlerde atılacak top masrafı olarak dahil bulunan tertipten tesviyesi”, BOA.DH.MKT.1146.10: 27/Z71324 (11 February 1907).

[18] The letter of the English consular in Trabzon J. Francis Jones, 4 August 1908 (FO 195-2303-1908).

[19]Trabzon Vilayet Salnamesi, 1289/1872, V. 4, p. 38.


References

Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi – Cevdet Maarif; Cevdet Dahiliye; Hatt-ı Hümayun; Zabtiye Nezareti Evrakı.

Emin Hilmi; Divan-ı Hilmi ve Münşeat, Trabzon Vilayet Matbaası, 1293 (1876).

Trabzon Vilayeti; Trabzon Vilayet Salnameleri, 1286-1322 (1869-1904), V. 1-22, Kudret Emiroğlu, Trabzon İli ve İlçeleri Eğitim, Kültür ve Sosyal Yardımlaşma Vakfı, Ankara, 1993-2009.


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