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The fish population of the Azov Sea: Sturgeons    EN

Author: KRAIKOFSKY ALEXEI

The Black and Azov Seas for centuries has been famous for the population of sturgeons (Acipenseridae) locally known also as the Red fish. These species of fish are undoubtedly of a special value for consumers. At the moment the Black Sea has about 200 species of fish, and about 30 of them are a target for fisheries. These species are united by hydrobiologists into several groups and the sturgeons belong to the group of especially valuable fish1. The group of Acipenseridae in the area includes six species – Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser sturio), Russian sturgeon (Acipenser guldenstaedti), Bastard sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) (very rear in the Black and especially in the Azov Sea), Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) and sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus). All these species are now in very bad condition, the populations decrease and require protection and support2.
The life cycle of all the species of Acipenseridae except for sterlet include spawning migrations, feeding migrations and wintering migrations. These fishes spend winters in the sea and in spring enter the rivers for spawning. Feeding gounds for Acipenseridae are situated in the sea, predominantly they take crustaceans and plants from the sand sea bottom, some sturgeons eat small fish3. However every species has peculiarities in the biology and life cycle.
Beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) is the biggest representative of the Red fish. In the Azov Sea Beluga sturgeon is a bit bigger (up to 1200 kg.) than in the Black Sea (up to 800 kg.). Beluga enters different rivers for spawning in different time, for instance in the case of the Don in March with a maximum in July – September. In late summer the nely-born fry return to the Sea Beluga sturgeons of the Azov Sea spend winter in this sea, while in the Black Sea the fish of this kind in winter can be found to the South from Crimea4.


[1] Зуев Г. В., Гуцал Д. К., Мельникова Е. Б., Бондарев В. А. Мурзин Ю. Л. Рыбные ресурсы Чёрного моря (состав, состояние запасов и эксплуатация). Гидробиологический журнал. 2010. Т. 46. №4. P. 16 – 27. P. 16.

[2] See for instance Бушуев С. Г., Черников Г. Б. Разработка и осуществление мероприятий по изучению и сохранению осетровых рыб Черного моря в Украине. http://www.ceemar.org/dspace/bitstream/11099/1442/1/a10.pdf ; Демьяненко К.В. состояние популяций рыб семейства Acipenseridae в Азовском море. Рибогосподарська наука України • № 3. 2011. P. 54 – 58.

[3] Брем А. Жизнь животных. М. Олма-Пресс. 2004. С. 829 – 831.

[4] For more details see: Svetovidov A. N. Рыбы Черного моря. Москва, Ленинград. Наука. 1964. P. 44 - 45.


References

G. V. Zuev, D. K. Gucal, E. B. Mel'nikova, V. A. Bondarev, Ju. L. Murzin. Рыбные ресурсы Чёрного моря (состав, состояние запасов и эксплуатация). [Fish resources of the Black Sea (composition, status of stocks and use).] Gidrobiologicheskij zhurnal, tom 46, 2010, № 4.
С. Г. Бушуев, Г. Б. Черников. Разработка и осуществление мероприятий по изучению и сохранению осетровых рыб Черного моря в Украине. http://www.ceemar.org/dspace/bitstream/11099/1442/1/a10.pdf ;
Демьяненко К.В. состояние популяций рыб семейства Acipenseridae в Азовском море. Рибогосподарська наука України • № 3. 2011. P. 54 – 58.
Брем А. Жизнь животных. М. Олма-Пресс. 2004. С. 829 – 831.
For more details see: Svetovidov A. N. Рыбы Черного моря. Москва, Ленинград. Наука. 1964. P. 44 - 45.


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