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Agricultural produce    EN


*Ph.D. (Research Assistant), University of Sinop, Sinop, Turkey

One of the livelihoods in the city of Sinop was agriculture. Agriculture was divided in two categories, the first one was crop cultivation and the second one vineyard and orchard cultivation. The part of the farmers engaged with field crop cultivation, mainly grain, had an annual total income during the Tanzimat era of 18,671.5 kurush. The proportion of this income to total income of the city was 6.7%. The second type of production, vineyard and orchard cultivation, brought income of 4,521 kurush, comprising 1.6% of the total income of the city. As it can be seen, the production of crops in vineyards and fields and the proportion of income was lower than field crop cultivation [1].

Among the products that constituted field crop cultivation in the city were wheat, barley, maize, chickpea and lentiles. In Boyabat, a district surrounding the city, wheat, barley, corn, vetch, potato and rice cultivation was in the forefront. The estimated annual rice production was 600,000 atik-i kıyye [2]. In addition to these, olives, onions, garlic, cotton, linen, cannabis, rice took an important place. We also learn from sources of late 19th century that linen, pear, chestnut and vegetables were grown [3]. Beside vegetable cultivation, it is also known that fruit types such as melon and watermelon were also cultivated. In Ayancık town, although the land is not much suitable for agriculture, corn, wheat, barley, linen, chestnut, apple, pear and walnut was cultivated. We learn from the provincial yearbook dated 1314 (1896) that the agricultural production increased by 10% compared to a few years ago. In those years, grain such as wheat and barley not only met the demand of the city but was also exported abroad [4].

Agricultural production income was the third in rank among sources of income within the city and constituted 5,3% of the total income of the city. In this way, agricultural activities had a certain amount within the total income in the city life, which denotes that the people of the city were not completely isolated from land [5]. It is understood that in Muslims quarters of Sinop people engaged in vineyard and orchard cultivation but since the non-muslims did not have land for agricultural use, they did not take part in agricultural activities. Based on this, it can be said that the livelihood activities of non-muslims in the city centered on trade [6].


[1] Selim Özcan, “Tanzimat Döneminde Sinop’un Sosyal Ekonomik Durumu”, (Phd Thesis, Ondokuzmayıs Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, I Section, Samsun 2007), pp. 7; Mehmet Ali Ünal, Osmanlı Devrinde Sinop, Isparta 2008, pp. 168-186.

[2] 1 kıyye=1,282 grams.

[3] 1310 Kastamonu Vilayet Salnamesi, pp. 443.

[4] 1314 Kastamonu Vilayet Salnamesi, pp.456-457.

[5] Ibid Selim Özcan, pp. 107.

[6] Ibid Selim Özcan,“XIX. Yüzyılın Ortalarında Sinop’taki Gayrimüslimlerin Sosyal ve Ekonomik Yapısı”, OTAM, 30/ Güz 2011, pp. 145-172.159.