Author: TAN HAKAN
*Research Assistant, 19 May University, Samsun, Turkey
Samsun, a prominent city on the Black Sea coast, became one of the most important commercial centers in that region thanks to its commercial development in the 19th century. One of the factors that contributed to Samsun’s ascension in terms of commerce during that period was the systematic production of the area’s essential agricultural lands. Besides, the opening of the Black Sea to international trade, thanks to a set of agreements that the Ottoman Empire signed and the emergence of the steamboat technology could be counted among the reasons that made Samsun increasingly important.
The harbor of Samsun, which was much busier than its Trabzon equivalent from the second quarter of the 19th century, drew attention from foreign countries. Besides, these countries embarked on commercial enterprises, because in addition to the harbor, there was also a road network that could provide trade and linkages with the hinterland. The opening of consulates in Samsun and the assignment of consuls and vice-consuls came as consequence of these developments. In this respect, the English assigned Mr. Steven as a consul to the consulate they established in Samsun in 1840. In 1856, F.Guarracino was assigned to that consulate along with his staff, which consisted of 7 members. M. Doulcet was assigned to that position with the degree of honorary consul in 1881. Mr. Dolsa, vice consul in 1888, was assigned to the Samsun consulate as a vice-consul in 1894. Akaid İspartoro was assigned to that position in 1892. In 1900, Henri de Cortanze was assigned with the degree of honorary consul.
Russia also assigned vice-consuls, who were bound to the Trabzon consulate, before establishing a consulate in Samsun in 1856. According to the Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, Russia’s consuls and vice-consuls in Samsun were the following: Mr. Kakaki was the first to be assigned as a vice-consul and then a consul between 1870 and 1872. In 1881, Mr. Judici took up that position. It can be ascertained that Mr. Nalidof was assigned as a vice-consul in 1888 and as a consul between 1892 and 1896 according to the Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi of 1888. In 1898, Mr. Şibinof was the consul and Fon Karipsi took over Mr. Şibinof’s place in 1900.
After sustained efforts, France established its first consulate in 1863. The first French representative was M. Nume Doulcet. Mr. Dulsa became the French representative in Samsun in 1879. He continued in his capacity of vice-consul between 1881 and 1888 according to the Ottoman yearbooks.
After the Crimean War, Persian merchants couldn’t continue ignoring Samsun, as the city drew attention in the Black Sea region. The route from Samsun all the way to Baghdad seemed to be safe and easy for them. For that reason, Persia established a consulate in Samsun in 1859 and carried out Persian official procedures through that consulate. Yusuf Ağa, who lived in Samsun, was officially given the power to handle the Persian affairs. It is likely that Yusuf Ağa was the first Persian Consul in Samsun. Finally, as we understand from the salnames, Ahmet Bey was the consul in the Samsun consulate between 1892-1894.
Osman Köse, “19.yüzyılda Samsun’da İran Misyonu: Tüccarlar, Konsolosluk ve Hüseyniyye(Acem) Tekkesi, Tarih Boyunca Karadeniz Ticareti ve Canik Sempozyumu Bildirileri, 19-21 Ekim 2012, Canik Belediyesi Kültür Yayınları, Samsun 2013, p.170.
 Uygur Kocabaşoğlu, Majestelerinin Konsolosları, İngiliz Belgeleriyle Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’ndaki İngiliz Konsolosları (1580-1900), İletişim Yayınları, İstanbul 2004, s.69.
 Uygur s.149.
 Trabzon Vilayet Salnamesi, 1888.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1892, 1894.
 Uygur Kocabaşoğlu s.159.
 Osman Köse, p.170.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1870,1871,1872.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1888, 1892, 1894, 1896.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1898, 1900.
 Osman Köse, p.170.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1879.
 Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1881, 1888.
 Osman Köse, p. 170.
 Osman Köse, p.171.