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Samsun


Town council    EN

Author: TAN HAKAN

*Research Assistant, 19 Mays University, Samsun, Turkey.

In Ottoman city, there weren’t any municipal organizations and city council that were similar to organizations that were present in the West. Municipal services in the cities were carried out by Kadıs. Besides the power of judging, the Ottoman Kadı was responsible for ensuring the safety of city with the other officers that undertook the military and civil order, controlling the foundation in the city and carrying out the municipal services.[1] However, such duties of Kadı ended up with the foundation of the office of İhtisap Nezareti in the main city and İhtisap Müdürlükleri in the province.[2]

The number of foreign merchants, businessman, diplomats and travelers increased due to the growth of the international trade of the Ottoman Empire with the West in the 19.centrury. Especially, coastal towns became the important centers enabling contact to outside world, something that brought an increase of their population. The new situation brought new needs and put to question the traditional Ottoman’s city government.[3]

The first municipal organization was declared to the public with the announcement in the official gazette “Takvim-i Vekayi” in 1854.[4] The most important incident that caused this change and brought the foundation of Şehremaneti in Istanbul was the Crimean War. The population in İstanbul increased rapidly during this Ottoman-Russian War because English, French and Italian armies came to help the Ottoman Empire. Increase in population in İstanbul brought out many problems such as cleaning, health and transportation.[5]

Modern municipal organization in the province begun with “Vilayet Nizamnamesi (1864)”. Municipal organizations were founded at the urban centers of vilayets, sanjaks and kazas with “İdare-i Umumiye-i Vilayet Nizamnamesi” in 1870. Mayors took office with appointment and city councils were elected.[6]

Members who would be elected had to be intelligent, virtuous and outstanding people and they also had to be familiar with state affairs and the situation of country. Those who had these characteristics needed to apply to the court to be candidate in the election.[7]

Members needed to swear in front of Kadı and Müftü to safeguard state interests and good administration without victimizing or making favoritism in the raising and collecting taxes. Non-Muslims were supposed to swear as required by their own religion according to talimatname.[8] Members who were elected in the council were put on salaries just like other officers so they weren’t seen only honorary members. However, this was repealed because it was very hard to determine characteristics of members that would be put on salaries.[9]

During the council meetings, it was forbidden to interrupt. Council decided by majority of the votes. Decisions which were taken were read by the clerk at the end of the meeting.[10] Sometimes, meeting was interrupted because of pressure of public officers and conflict between members and public officers. However, according to Ceza Kanunnamesi public officers might have been punished and relegated if they had taken side or provoked the public.[11]

Members of the Council took on some duties. These duties were as follow: 1) Regulation of main streets, streets and squares, 2) Building, maintenance and repair works for pavement, waterway and sewage systems, 3) Cleaning services, 5) Relief of the poor (health, job). 5) Lightening with lantern in main streets and streets, 6) Organizing bazaars and markets, 7) Organizing and controlling urban transportation, 8) Founding fire department, 9) Registration of contracts, 10) Supervision and audit.[12]

As mentioned above, municipal organization and town council was founded and carried out works in Canik Sanjak. Members who were elected according to talimatname and chiefs and members who were put in service are listed below chronologically.

Officers of Canik Municipal Council

Years

Title

Name

1869[13]

Chief

Emrullah Efendi

Members

Hacı Tahir Efendi

Hacı Ömer Ağa

Hasan Efendi

Makarios Ağa

Mihail Ağa

Agop Ağa

Sarkiz Ağa

Clerk

Ali Efendi

1870[14]

Chief

Emrullah Efendi

Members

Hacı Tahir Efendi

Hacı Ömer Ağa

Hasan Efendi

Makarios Ağa

Mihail Ağa

Agop Ağa

Sarkiz Ağa

Clerk

Ali Efendi

1871[15]

Chief

Abdullah Ziya Efendi

Members

Mustafa Zihni Efendi

İbrahim Efendi

Mehmet Efendi

Makaryos efendi

Zekyan Sarkis Ağa

Clerk

Ali Efendi

1872[16]

Chief

Hacı İsmail Efendi

Members

Mustafa Zihni Efendi

Mehmet Efendi

İbrahim Efendi

Grekyan Sarkis Ağa

Makaryos Ağa

Clerk

Süleyman Efendi

1879[17]

Chief

Hasan Tahsin Efendi

Members

Zihni Efendi

Hacı İsmail Efendi

Mehmet Refet Efendi

Mehmet Emin Ağa

Agop Ağa

Karabet Efendi

Gazar Ağa

Süleyman Efendi

Clerk

Asım Efendi

1881[18]

Chief

Mahmut Bey

Members

Yusuf Ziya Efendi

İsmail Efendi

Todor Efendi

Ohannes Efendi

Clerk

Hasan Efendi

1888[19]

Chief

Azmi Efendi

Members

Hacı Hüseyinzade

Hacı Seyyit Ağa

Cinikzade Dimitraki Ağa

Osman Ağazade

Hacı Hafız Ali Efendi

Hacı Hafızzade

Hacı Hafız Raşit efendi

Bogosyan Gazaz Ağa

Buluroğlu Karilos Ağa

İstebanyan Bedros Ağa

Clerk

İlyaszade Hasan Efendi

1892[20]

Chief

Hilmi Efendi

Members

Hacı Hüseyinzade

Hacı Seyit Ağa

Osman Ağazade

Hacı Hafız İlmi Efendi

Hacı Hafızzade

Hacı Hafız Raşit Efendi

Cinikzade Dimitraki Ağa

Burluoğlu Karilos Ağa

Bogosyan Gazaz Ağa

İstebanyan Bedros Ağa

Clerk

Hasan Efendi

1894[21]

Chief

Mustafa Efendi

Members

Hacı Raşitzade Naim Efendi

Piyaloğlu Apostolaki Efendi

Kuşniyan Ohannes Efendi

İstepanyan Bedros Efendi

Canikzade Dimitraki Ağa

Clerk

Hasan Efendi

1896[22]

Chief

Ahmet Ragıp Efendi

Members

Hacı Raşitzade Naim Efendi

Piyaloğlu Apostolaki Efendi

Dizadarzade Rasim Efendi

Papasoğlu Yorgi Efendi

İstepanyan Bedros Efendi

Canikzade Dimitraki Ağa

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1898[23]

Chief

Ahmet Ragıp Efendi

Permanent Member

Muhabiroğlu Nikolaki Efendi

Tokatlıyan Kirkor Efendi

Estepanyan Efendi

Cinikzade Dimitraki Ağa

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1900[24]

Chief

Hacı Hafız Raşit Efendi

İkincizade Şükrü Efendi

Burlioğlu Evbaniyas Efendi

Arzuoğlu Todoraki Efendi

Estepan Efendi

Bünyatoğlu Bünyat Efendi

Members

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1901[25]

Chief

Hafız Raşit Efendi

Members

Hacı Hasanzade Şevki Efendi

Arzuoğlu Todoraki Efendi

Yorgi Evyanyos Efendi

İstepan efendi

Bünyatoğlu Bünyat

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1902[26]

Chief

Hacı Hafız Raşid Efendi

Members

Hacı Tahir Efendi

Hacı Hüseyinzade Şevki Efendi

Arzuoğlu Todoraki Efendi

Bodurluoğlu Evyanyos Efendi

Bagdasaryan İstepan Efendi

Talastiyos Todoraki Efendi

Bünyatoğlu Bünyat Efendi

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1903[27]

Chief

Kabilizade Necib Efendi

Members

Hüseyin Ağazade Cemal Bey

Boşnakzade Süleyman Efendi

Hacı Savaoğlu Avram Efendi

Papasoğlu Yorgaki Efendi

Hıristaki Hursaforidis Efendi

Gencyan Anuf Efendi

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

1904[28]

Chief

Necib Efendi

Members

Asım Efendi

Süleyman Bey

Avram Efendi

Yorgaki efendi

Hıristaki Efendi

İstefanaki Efendi

Clerk

Hasan Fahri Efendi

 


[1] Mehmet Seyitdanlıoğlu, Tanzimat Döneminde Modern Belediyeciliğin Doğuşu, Türkiye İş Bankası Yayınları, İstanbul 2010, p.1-2.

[2] Ahmet Saydam, “Tanzimat Devri Reformları”, Türkler, C. XII. , Ankara; Yeni Türkiye Yayınları, 2002,p.791.

[3] Saydam, p.792.

[4] Seyitdanlıoğlu, p.3-4.

[5] Seyitdanlıoğlu, p.3

[6] Feyzullah Ünal, “Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyete Türkiye’de Yerel Yönetimlerin Yasal ve Yapısal Dönüşümü”, Dumlupınar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, S.30, Ağustos 2011, p.244.

[7] İlber Ortaylı, Tanzimat Devrinde Osmanlı Mahalli İdareleri (1840-1880), Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara 2011, p.36.

[8] Ortaylı, p.37.

[9] Ortaylı, p.38.

[10] Ortaylı, p.37.

[11] Ortaylı, p.37, 40, 41.

[12] Seyitdanlıoğlu, p.8.

[13] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1869.

[14] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1870.

[15] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1871.

[16] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1872.

[17] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1879.

[18] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1881.

[19] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1888.

[20] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1892.

[21] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1894.

[22] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1896.

[23] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1898.

[24] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1900.

[25] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1901.

[26] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1902.

[27] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1903.

[28] Trabzon Vilayeti Salnamesi, 1904.


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