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Mayors    EN


In the Ottoman Empire, municipal and state functions were not separated from each other for a long time, and cities were governed by officials appointed by the emperor that represented him. This classical administrative structure continued in Anatolia and other eastern cities until the 19th century.[1] Introduction of modern municipalism to Turkey took place with the Edict of Gülhane in 1839.[2] Until the emergence of modern municipalism in the country, municipal services were provided by foundations that were formed based on charity and cooperation. Thus, public works serving public needs created a bond between the upper or ruling class and the people.[3]

In 1854, the Şehremaneti (early Ottoman municipality), which is considered to be the predecessor of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, was established, and it was presided by a şehremini ("Mayor" in Ottoman Turkish). It subsequently turned to the Altıncı Dâire-i Belediyye (the Sixth Municipal District) following the Paris example, and then in 1864, meclis-i beledîler (municipal councils) that laid the foundation of modern municipalism were opened pursuant to the Vilayet (province) Law of 1864.[4]

Following the Vilayet Law, the establishment of a municipal organisation in Giresun is stated in the 1869 Annual of Trabzon.[5] The Mayors who held office in the District of Giresun between the years of 1869 and 1909 are listed below:

  1. Abdullah Bey (1869-1870)[6]
  2. Pastırmacıoğlu Mustafa Efendi (1875 – 1877)[7]
  3. Beyazıtoğlu Mahmut Kaptan (1877 – 1881)[8]
  4. Bekir Efendi (1881-1885)[9]
  5. Kaptan Yorgi Konstantindi Pasha (1885-1904)[10]

Among the mayors listed, undoubtedly the most influential and remarkable one was Yorgi Pasha. He successfully governed the city for an uninterrupted period of 18 years. He carried out many public services including roads, municipal water, schools, etc., and he prevented non-Muslims from immigrating to Russia. The Sultan of the time, Abdul Hamid II, appointed Yorgi Pasha as the lifelong mayor of the city because of his much appreciated services.[11]


[1] Cengiz Sunay, “Belediyeciliğin Doğuşu Sürecinde Osmanlı Mirası”,  Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi (3) 2002/1:pp. 113-133.

[2] İlber Ortaylı, Tanzimat Devrinde Osmanlı: Mahallî idareleri, Ankara 2011, p.124.

[3] Ümit Kılıç-Abdulkadir Gül, “Osmanlı Devri Erzincan Vakıflarına Genel Bir Bakış”, History Studies,  Volume 3 / 1 2011, pp.165-182.

[4] İlber Ortaylı,  Türkiye Teşkilat ve İdare Tarihi, Ankara 2007, p. 505-506.

[5] 1286 Trabzon Vilâyet Salnamesi, p. 39; Sezai Balcı, Giresun Rumları ve Gayrimüslim Bir Belediye Başkanı: Kaptan Yorgi Konstantindi Paşa, İstanbul 2012, p.  106.

[6] Ayhan Yüksel, "Salnamelere Göre Giresun Bölgesinin İdari Durumu ve İdarecileri", Giresun Tarihi Sempozyumu (24-25 Mayıs 1996) Bildiriler, Giresun Belediyesi Yay, İstanbul 1997, pp. 173-188.

[7] (15.12.2017); Although the names Pastırmacıoğlu Mustafa Efendi and Beyazıtoğlu Mahmut Kaptan are mentioned in the cited annuals, they are shown as the first two mayors by the official website of the Municipality of Giresun.

[8] (15.12.2017).

[9] 1298 Trabzon Vilâyet Salnamesi, p. 61.

[10] 1305 Trabzon Vilâyet Salnamesi, p. 235.

[11] Sezai Balcı, “Giresun Belediye Başkanı Kaptan Yorgi Paşa 1829-1904”, Tarih Boyunca Karadeniz Ticareti ve Canik Sempozyumu Bildirileri, Editör: Osman Köse, C.2, Samsun 2013, pp. 1311-1332.