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Galatz


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Brief history of Galaţi before 1774

The beginnings of human existence in the area of Galaţi date back since the Antiquity, when a Dacian settlement was founded in the proximity of a Danube ford. After the Roman conquest of Dacia, the settlement was incorporated into a Roman administrative-territorial unit belonging to the province of Moesia Inferior. The old Dacian settlement was placed near the river bank south from St. Precista Church, but it was destroyed, for the most part, by the river. After the abandonment of Dacia by the Roman troops, the dwellers moved northwards, but they continued to inhabit the area up to the 14th century. Their main occupations must have been fishery, agriculture, shepherding and craftsmanship. Being placed in one of the Danube shallows, in close proximity to the junction of the rivers Siret and Prut with the Danube, the settlement was part of the commercial routes connecting southern Moldavia with the northern Dobruja and the Byzantine Empire. This placement, alongside with the abundance of fish and the economic influence of Dinogetia, a neighbouring borough, led to the constant transformation of the settlement during the 14th century, becoming a permanent borough at the beginning of the next century.

The name of the town has been related to the Greek variant for Celts (Gallatae), but also to the Cuman word gala, galat, synonymous with the Arabic kalhat, which means citadel or fortress. Another etymology connects the toponyms with the Southern Slavic eponym Gal – which means black – with the suffix –at added, and later pluralised, as it often happened with many other Romanian toponyms. A more recent hypothesis asserts that the Slavic–Romanian name of Galaţi derives from hallāṣ, revenue officers collecting taxes for the Hungarian Kingdom.

The name of the borough in the form Galff is recorded for the first time in a German manuscript from 1467 (Ettenheim Münster II), which records, inter alia, a list of Moldavian boroughs represented at the Constanţa Council of 1415. Another documentary record is found in the description of Moldavia written between 1527 and 1538 by Georg Reichersdorffer, in which the borough of Galaţi is mentioned as oppidum (town).

Like all the other Moldavian urban settlements, the borough of Galaţi was founded on a princely estate. Later, the Moldavian rulers gave some of the lands to the community, but kept the most part in their property. Several villages around the borough were placed under the administration of an official whose residence was at Galaţi. The first documentary mention of this fact dates back from April 1588, when Prince Petru Şchiopu sold Şiviţa, a neighbouring village “which used to belong to the prince”. There were two types of administrative officials in the borough: the autonomous ones, elected by the members of the community, and those appointed by hospodars.

The autonomous administrative organs were the şoltuz (head of the town) and the council of twelve pârgari (town councillors), whereas those appointed by the Prince were the vornic (town steward) and the pârcălab (high magistrate). The first source mentioning such administrative organs elected by the community is dated 4 August 1622, when the şoltuz and pârgari avouched as witnesses to a deed of conveyance for a village in the county of Fălciu. Despite this late mentioning, one may assume that these organs had also been in power during previous centuries. They had various responsibilities: to allot fiscal tasks to the community, to parcel out the land of the town, to judge the small litigations among the borough’s citizens, to record all the real estate transactions in the register. The elected organs also authenticated the deeds concluded in the borough, as they were able to certify the deeds of conveyance. In addition, they were entitled to use the seal of the borough, which they applied on the documents they issued. During the 15th to 17th centuries, the seal of the borough was in Slavic, and its heraldic area depicted two fish separated by a horizontal line, thus suggesting the importance of fishery for the local economic life. As representative of the state, the town steward’s (vornic) primary assignment was tax collection, being probably placed under the authority of a regional official. The other representative of the ruler was the pârcalab, exercising his authority both within the borough’s enclosure and in the County of Covurlui. His main responsibilities were military, judiciary and fiscal, but he also pursued the fulfilment of the ruler’s behests and authenticated deeds bearing obligations concluded between private parties.

In order to perform these tasks, the pârcălab of Covurlui had an important apparatus of servants in the service of the hospodar. As the borough was placed on the Moldavian border, there was also a third category of officials: the revenue officers. Apart from the Moldavian revenue officers, since the 17th century there was also a Turk revenue officer collecting taxes for the Ottoman Empire. It was probably after 1484, when Moldavia lost the two important ports at the Black Sea, Chilia and Cetatea Albă, that the borough of Galaţi entered the international trade circuit, thus becoming the most important harbour of the country. The economic development continued later, after Brăila became a Turkish citadel, in 1540. Whilst Brăila remained a centre for supplying the Ottoman military system from the southern Danubian area, Galaţi preserved some freedoms, being allowed to have commercial relations with other partners than the Ottoman Empire, such as Poland and Transylvania.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, the most traded goods on the Galaţi market were fish and big and small cattle. The 17th century marked the borough’s transformation into an important economic centre, as almost all the trading at the Lower Danube was carried out on this market. The main economic actors were the local merchants (cupeţi), the monasteries, the grand boyars, but also foreign merchants, mainly Greeks, Turks, Ragusans (grouped around a Catholic church attested for the first time in the 17th century) and Armenians (gathered around their own church, attested in 1669). On the other hand, with the forced orientation of Moldavian commerce towards the Ottoman Empire, the town of Galaţi became the main gate for supplying the goods requested by the Porte: cereals and food supplies (zaherea). The trading with Poland continued, nevertheless, the town being now the main market wherefrom the merchants of Galicia bought fish. The transit trade also continued, and Galaţi remained an important station on the routes connecting Poland and Transylvania with Constantinople. The local goods exported through the local market were, just like during the previous centuries, fish, big and small cattle, but also wax, honey, butter, wood (timber) and caustic potassium.

The increase in economic importance led to an intense activity of church foundations. Along the 17th century several churches and monasteries were erected, some of them masonry buildings. At Mavromol Monastery there functioned, starting since 1765, a school with two teachers appointed by the county’s school administration.

By virtue of the obligation to supply Constantinople with grains, the town remained, along the 18th century, the primary collecting point for cereals from Moldavia; at the same time, it became the most important market for fish trading at the Lower Danube. Other goods often traded on the local market were sheep, cheese and wool (brought by the Transylvanian shepherds), honey and wax, wine (from the Moldavian vineries), salt, and timber. The documents of the time also mention the first manufactories established during this period. Starting with the first half of the 18th century, the presence of shipyards is attested, where there were built commercial ships and warships for the Ottoman fleet.

During the 18th century, the town administration began to lose the relative autonomy the town was enjoying, as the elected administrative bodies (the şoltuz and pârgari) had been replaced with town trustees. The entire management of the administration was placed under the control of the pârcălab of Galaţi, appointed by the Moldavian Grand Treasurer and approved by the Princely Divan. The county grand captain and the town captain (bulucbaşa) also played an important part in the local administration, both under the rule of the pârcălab. A Turk official (serdar), under the rule of the Prince, but appointed by the Sultan or the Grand Vizier also resided in the town; his responsibilities were to act as police for the Turk residents or business travellers. During the Russian–Turk wars in the 18th century, the town was repeatedly occupied by the Russian or Ottoman armies and was the scene of two devastating battles, in 1769 and 1789.

 


References

Anghel, Aneta, “Observaţii cu privire la zonele locuite în oraşul medieval Galaţi” [Observations regarding the residential areas in the medieval town of Galaţi], Danubius, 11–12 (1984–1985), 75–86.

Ciurea, D., “Câteva date pentru istoricul Galaţilor (sec. XVI-XVIII)” [Several Data for the History of Galaţi (16th – 18th centuries)], Studii şi cercetări ştiinţifice, Istorie, Iaşi, 8:1 (1957), 227–229.

Lazarovici, Gr., Şt. Stanciu, Galaţii, istorie şi contemporaneitate [Galaţi, History and Actuality] (Galaţi: Editura Alma, 2004).

Munteanu–Bârlad, Gh. N., Galaţii (Galaţi, Societate de Editură Ştiinţifică–Culturală, 1927).

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Păltănea, Paul, “Câteva date privind începuturile oraşului Galaţi” [Some Data on the Beginnings of Galaţi], Anuarul Institutului de Istorie şi Arheologie “A. D. Xenopol”, Iaşi, 6 (1969).

Păltănea, Paul, “Ştiri despre economia oraşului Galaţi în secolele al XV-lea şi al XVI-lea” [Information on the Economy of Galaţi during the 15th and 16th Centuries], Danubius, 5 (1971), 101–114.

Păltănea, Paul, “Vechi locaşuri de cult şi viaţa bisericească în sudul Moldovei până la 1864” [Old Houses of Cult and Church Life in Southern Moldavia until 1864], Monumente istorice şi izvoare creştine [Historical Monuments and Christian Sources] (Galaţi: Editura Arhiepiscopiei Tomisului şi Dunării de Jos, 1987), 189–255.

Păltănea, Paul, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918 [The History of Galaţi from Its Beginnings to 1918], second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008).



Bibliography

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A geographical, statistical, and commercial account of the Russian ports of the Black Sea, the Sea of Asoph and the Danube: also an official report of the European commerce of Russia in 1835, from the German. with map, London: A. Schloss and P. Richardson, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book gives geographical, statistical and commercial data around the cities of the Danube, the Black Sea and the Azov Sea/ Το βιβλίο δίνει γεωγραφικά, στατιστικά και εμπορικά στοιχεία γύρω από τις πόλεις του Δούναβη, της Μαύρης και της Αζοφικής θάλασσας.

Admiralty hydrogr, The Black sea pilot, 3rd ed., London: J. D. Potter, 1884

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς. 

Admiralty hydrogr, The Black sea pilot, 3rd ed., London: J. D. Potter, 1890

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Beattie, William, The Danube, its history, scenery and topography, London: G. Virtue, 1842, pt. 1-4

Nezhin  Galatz  Braila  
Αrchitectural Form  Urban Landscape - Geography  Statistics  
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The book contains paintings and engravings of the Paradanubian cities during the 18th and 19th century and also, historical and geographical references/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει πίνακες και χαρακτικά των Παραδουνάβιων πόλεων κατά το 18ο και 19ο αιώνα καθώς επίσης και ιστορικά και γεωγραφικά στοιχεία. 

Campenhausen, Pierce Balthasar, Freiherr von, Travels through several provinces of the Russian Empire: with an historical account of the Zaporog Cossacks, and of Bessarabia, Moldavia, Wallachia and the Crimea, London: Printed for Richard Phillips, by J.G. Barnard, 1808

Taganrog  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Galatz  Braila  Berdyansk  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  

Catherine, Empress of Russia, The grand instructions to the Commissioners Appointed to Frame a New Code of Laws for the Russian, London: Printed for T. Jefferys, 1768

Odessa  Nikolayev  Kherson  Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  
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The book contains essays by Empress Catherine for new institutions and rules on trade, including Russia as a rising economic and political power/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει δοκίμια της Αυτοκράτειρας Αικατερίνης για τους νέους θεσμούς και κανόνες στο εμπόριο, περιλαμβάνοντας τη Ρωσία ως ανερχόμενη οικονομική και πολιτική δύναμη. 

Clark, Charles Upson, Bessarabia, Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea, Dodd, Mead and Company, New York 1927

Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Nezhin  Mariupol  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book mentions the history and topography of the countries of the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρει την ιστορία και την τοπογραφία των χωρών της Μαύρης θάλασσας.

Dearborn, Henry A. S., A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt, vol. I - II, Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1819

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book mentions the history and topography of the countries of the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος περιγράφει το εμπόριο και τη ναυσιπλοία των της Μαύρης θάλασσας.

Eardley-Wilmot, Sydney Marow, Life of Vice-Admiral Edmund, lord Lyons: With an account of naval operations in the Black Sea and Sea of Azoff, 1854-56, London: Sampson Low, Marston and Co., 1898

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The book contains descriptions of Vice Admiral Lord Lyon during travel carried out almost throughout the world during the early and mid of the 19th century/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει τις περιγραφές του αντιναυάρχου λόρδου Lyon κατά τα ταξίδια που πραγματοποίησε σχεδόν σε ολόκληρο τον κόσμο κατά τις αρχές και τα μέσα του 19ου αιώνα. 

Eton, William, A Concise account of the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea: from recent and authentic information, London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1805

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book-pilot is referred to the trade and navigation of the coasts of the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος αναφέρεται στο εμπόριο και τη ναυσιπλοία των ακτών της Μαύρης θάλασσας.

Gagemeister, IU, Memoire sur le commerce des ports de la Nouvelle-Russie, de la Moldavie et de la Valachie/ par Jules de Hagemeister, Odessa: D. Mieville, 1835

Sevastopol  Odessa  Nikolayev  Nezhin  Mariupol  Kherson  Galatz  Braila  Berdyansk  
Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book refers to the development of trade in the cities of New Russia and the Danubian regions/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στην ανάπτυξη του εμπορίου στις πόλεις της Νέας Ρωσίας και των Παραδουνάβιων περιοχών. 

Geddie, John, The Russian empire: its rise and progress: with a description of the country, its history, government, and peoples, and an account of the latest conquests in central Asia, London: T. Nelson, 1885

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Nezhin  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The article refers to the economic and political consolidation of the Russian Empire through trade and conquest in the regions of Central Asia and the Caspian Sea/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στην οικονομική και πολιτική εδραίωση της Ρωσικής Αυτοκρατορίας μέσα από το εμπόριο αλλά και την κατάκτηση περιοχών στην Κεντρική Ασία και την Κασπία θάλασσα. 

Hajnal, Henry, The Danube as waterway, Springer pdf, http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-015-2736-1/page/1 New window

Odessa  Nezhin  Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
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The present study addresses the institutional evolution of the Danube river before and after the creation of the European Danube Commission as well as the role of the Danube as a major waterway under the impact of the implementation of the technology of steam/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στο ρόλο του Δούναβη ως εμπορικού δρόμου.

Hajnal, Henry, The Danube: Its historical, political and economic importance, The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1920

Nezhin  Galatz  Braila  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  Administration  
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This article mentions the role of the Danube as an economic, political and social factor of Europe in the 19th century/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στο ρόλο του Δούναβη ως οικονομικός, πολιτικός και κοινωνικός παράγοντας της Ευρώπης το 19ο αιώνα. 

Harvey, M. L., The Development of Russian Commerce on the Black Sea and Its Significance, London, 1931

Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sevastopol  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Galatz  Evpatoria  Berdyansk  
Shipping  Marine Environment - Harbour Systems  Economy and Infrastructure  Black Sea Connections  
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This is a valuable unpublished ph.D thesis which analyzes in great detail the development of Black sea grain trade in the 19th century based on official statistical series of the Russian Empire. The port cities, their foundation and evolution over time forms the basis of the analysis of the rise of the Black sea region in the international grain trade and the role of this process to the economic development. The development of the Black sea region is linked to the expansion of the productive hinterland, the expansion of sea and land transportation networks and the diffusion of the technology of steam. /Η διδακτορική διατριβή αναφερει την ανάπτυξη του ρωσικού εμπορίου στη Μαύρη θάλασσα και τις επιπτώσεις του στην οικονομία της εποχής.

Methodieva-Bogomilova, Milena, Reform, politics and culture among the Muslims in Bulgaria, 1878-1908, vol. I, Princeton University, 2010

Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
Culture and Communities  
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The book refers  the history and culture of Muslims in Bulgaria/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στην ιστορία και την κουλτούρα των Μουσουλμάνων της Βουλγαρίας. 

Özveren, Y. Eyüp. 1997. “A Framework for the Study of the Black Sea World, 1789-1915”. Review (fernand Braudel Center) 20 (1). Research Foundation of SUNY: 77–113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40241390.

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Shipping  Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  Administration  
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Studies of the nineteenth-century Ottoman and Russian Empires as well as of the numerous nation-states that came into existence around the Black Sea have mostly been pursued separately. This article attempts to offer an alternative framework of analysis for the study of the Black Sea world during the nineteenth century. It starts off from Femand Braudel's approach to the sixteenth-century Mediterranean world in order to discuss whether and to what extent the Black Sea region could also be conceived as a world. Not only structural similarities but also historically-specific circumstances are emphasized for supporting the parallel drawn between the sixteenth-century Mediterranean and the nineteenth-century Black Sea. A number of further intellectual questions are raised in order to demonstrate that a holistic perspective has much to offer for re-directing academic research into more promising problem areas.

Peyssonel, M. de, Traité sur le commerce de la Mer Noire, vol. I-II, A Paris: Chez Cuchet ..., 1787

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book refers to trade in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στο εμπόριο της Μαύρης θάλασσας

Reuilly, Jean, baron de, Voyage en Crimée et sur les bords de la Mer Noire, pendant l'année 1803; suivi d'un mémoire sur le commerce de cette mer, et de notes sur les principaux ports commerçans.... Paris: Bossange, Masson et Besson, 1806

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book lists the records of trips of a baron in  Crimea and the Black Sea in 1803 together with information on trade and the economy/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρει τις καταγραφές των ταξιδιών ενός βαρόνου στην Κριμαία και στη Μαύρη θάλασσα το 1803 μαζί με πληροφορίες για το εμπόριο και την οικονομία.

Saint-Joseph, Anthoine De - Ignace, Antoine, Essai historique sur le commerce et la navigation de la Mer-Noire: ou Voyages et entreprises pour etablir des rapports commerciaux et maritimes entre les ports de la Mer-Noire et ceux de la Mediterranee, Paris: H. Agasse, 1805

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book contains essays on trade and shipping in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει δοκίμια για το εμπόριο και τη ναυτιλία στη Μαύρη θάλασσα.

Taitbout de Marigny, Edouard, chevalier, Three voyages in the Black Sea to the coast of Circassia: including descriptions of the ports, and the importance of their trade: with sketches of the manners, customs, religion, London: J. Murray, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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Travellers essays/ Περιηγητικά κείμενα

Taitbout de Marigny, Edouard., Pilote de la Mer Noire de la Mer d'Azov: extrait de l'hydrographie de la Mer Noire et de la Mer d' Azov, comparée à celles de l'antiquité et du Moyen Age du même auteur, Constantinople: Koromila et Paspalli, 1850

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Terristori, Conte, A Geographical, statistical and commercial account of the Russian ports of the Black Sea, the Sea of Asoph and the Danube: also an official report of the European commerce of Russia in 1835, London: A. Schloss, foreign book and print seller, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The article is a commercial and geographic reference to the cities-ports of the Black Sea/ Το άρθρο αποτελεί εμπορική και γεωγραφική αναφορά στις πόλεις-λιμάνια της Μαύρης θάλασσας. 

United States, Black Sea pilot, the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea and Sea of Azov, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1927

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Wilkinson, Charles, An account of the navigation and commerce of the Black Sea, London: W. Wilson, 1807

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Nezhin  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The book-pilot refers to navigation in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος αναφέρεται στη ναυσιπλοία της Μαύρης θάλασσας 

Skene, James, Henry, The Danubian Principalities: The Frontier Lands of the Christian and the Turk: In two vol. / By a British resident of twenty years in the East, London: R. Bentley: 1854. - 2 vol.

Nezhin  Galatz  Braila  
Culture and Communities  
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The book includes reflections on the relations between Christians and Ottomans in the Danubian principalities/ Το βιβλίο περιλαμβάνει σκέψεις σχετικά με τις σχέσεις χριστιανών και οθωμανών στις Παραδουνάβιες ηγεμονίες.

Γεωργιτσογιάννη, Ευαγγελία Ν., Παναγής Α. Χαρακόπος (1835-1911). Η ζωή και το έργο του, Νέα Σύνορα, Αθήνα 2000 

Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
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Το παρόν βιβλίο αφορά τη ζωή και τις οικονομικές, πολιτικές και κοινωνικές δραστηριότητες του Παναγή Χαροκόπου (Κεφαλλονιά 1835-Αθήνα 1911), ο οποίος μετανάστευσε σε νεαρή ηλικία στη Ρουμανία, όπου απέκτησε μεγάλη περιουσία από το εμπόριο σιτηρών και την καλλιέργεια μεγάλων κτημάτων τα οποία ενοικίαζε. Το 1899 εγκαταστάθηκε στην Αθήνα. Αρχισε να ασχολείται με τα τσιφλίκια του στη Θεσσαλία και με χρηματοοικονομικές δραστηριότητες. Στα τέλη της ζωής του αναμείχθηκε στην πολιτική και εξελέγη βουλευτής με το Κόμμα των Φιλελευθέρων του Ελ. Βενιζέλου το 1910.
Συνέβαλε στον εκσυγχρονισμό της γεωργίας στη Ρουμανία και στην Ελλάδα. Δραστηριοποιήθηκε, επίσης, για την ανάπτυξη της βιοτεχνίας/βιομηχανίας στην Ελλάδα και συμμετείχε ενεργά στη διαμόρφωση του χρηματιστικού-τραπεζικού κλάδου της χώρας κατά την πρώτη δεκαετία του 20ού αιώνα. Ανέπτυξε δε πλούσια κοινωφελή δραστηριότητα, ευεργετώντας τόσο την Ελλάδα όσο και τη Ρουμανία.

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