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Galatz


Public Services    EN

Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN
Petroleum
Oil
Gas
Electricity
Water
Sewage
Trash removal

List

Type of the public service

Company’ name

Date of establishment

Owner

Capital

Gas

Charles Georgi

1893

Charles Georgi

Electricity

Charles Georgi

1893

Charles Georgi

Petroleum/oil

Water supply

Galatz Waterworks Co. Ltd

1873

George Crawley

2,000,000 lei

Sewage

George Eliad

1872

George Eliad

1,500,000 lei

Trash removal

The sewage system. By mid 19th century, as Galaţi was always turned into a marsh during the rainy seasons local authorities intended to establish a public sewage system, which however was only completed for the central area of the city[1]. In August 1872 the municipality leased to Grigore Eliad from Bucharest the construction of a network of sinks for the drainage of water and other liquid matters. The total length of the sewage system was 14,034 meters, to be completed by 1 April 1876 for a price of 1.5 million lei. The municipality was to cover the cost over a period of twenty years, the annuity being 144,375 lei, payable in two equal biannual instalments. Inobservance of the agreement led to a lengthy trial between the entrepreneur, his funding institutions and the local authorities in Galaţi. Until 1890, the contractor built 4,530 meters of the sewage network, which only covered the main streets of the city. Its lower part remained in a disastrous situation and was regularly flooded by the waters of the Danube and of Brateş Lake[2].

Picture 4.2.6_1 A section of the sewage system, revealed by modern archaeological excavations
Source: http://www.viata-libera.ro/eveniment/11623-canalizare-veche-de-130-de-ani-la-galati

The water supply. As the drinkable water procurable at Galaţi was of a low quality, a large though insufficient number of water bearers covered the needs of a growing population. In March 1872 the municipality granted to enterpriser Dimitrie Monnier of Marseilles the right to establish and exploit a plant for supplying the city with filtered water. In 1873 the concession was ceded to George B. Crawley of London, with whom the authorities concluded a convention. The company was called “The Galatz Water Works Co. Limited”, its main headquarters were in London and a subsidiary was operational at Galaţi. The concession was granted for 45 years, and the social capital of the company was fixed at 2 million lei. The hydraulic plant that was to be built had the following technical features: a) a building with two machines (each of 120 hp), boilers, pumps, accessories, and a water mouth placed in the Danube; b) three decantation basins; c) three filters; d) a basin for filtered water. The contractors had to establish at least 25 fountains with intermittent distribution at sites designated by the authorities and to provide to the commune, free of charge, a quantity of maximum 300 cubic meters of water a day during the period 15 April – 15 October and 100 cubic meters a day during the rest of the year. The pipes that carried the water through the city measured 28 kilometres in length. The plant was operational in June 1875, with a discharge of 150 cubic meters a day, and by 1890 the company had 1,087 subscribers (not including the large industrial consumers), and an annual discharge of 390,000 cubic meters. As the supply of filtered water was limited to the central areas of the city, the municipality compelled the company to extend its installations to the suburbs of Galaţi. A new exploitation company, “The Company of Galaţi Waters” was constituted in April 1910 with this aim[3].

Public lighting. During the second half of the 19th century oil gas was used at Galaţi for public lighting. An increasing number of lamps was functional, as the urban area extended, so that by early 1890s there were 1,680 lamps leased to a private company for 47 lei a year per lamp (or a total yearly amount of 78,960 lei). The municipality received several offers to introduce aerial gas and electrical light (from Jules Landry of Paris, “Compagnie du gaze de Bucarest”, Frederic Pippig of Berlin, the “International Electric Company Limited”, etc.), and in 1890 it signed an agreement with the company of Charles Georgi of Paris, to whom it leased the lighting of the city with fluid gas (aeriform) and electricity. The contract, valid for a term of 40 years, was signed on 5 July 1893, and it stipulated the construction of a network of 50 kilometres for gas lighting and 12 kilometres for electricity. The plant was built on the bank of the Danube, and it was inaugurated on 5 December 1894. The gas installation was completely functional in December 1896, but the company did not always respect its agreement, and electric lighting was only fully operational after World War One. However, the dockyards and the harbour were supplied by a different power source, established for the use of the port. The electrical plant of the tramways company also provided electricity to private consumers[4].

Tramways. Discussion about introducing tramways at Galaţi took place as early as the 1880s, but the project was materialised only during the following decade. The enterprise was taken in 1892 by the “Society of Galaţi Tramcars”, and in March 1895 the company of Charles Georgi was given the privilege to establish an electric tramway in the city, with 6 percent of benefits given to the municipality. The first route connected the dockyards to the city centre, wherefrom two other lines went along the Brăilei and Mavromol streets. Other routes were introduced in the next period, so that by 1902 the tramway network stretched along 13 kilometres. New lines were added in 1906 towards Traian and Bădălan suburbs[5].

Picture 4.2.6_2 Tramways on Mavromol Street (about 1913)
Source: www.bvau.ro

 


[1] Tezaur documentar gălăţean, edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988), 113, 148, 151, 164.

[2] Moise N. Pacu, Cartea judeţului Covurluiu. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice, (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891), 327–330; Gh. N. Munteanu–Bârlad, Galaţii (Galaţi: Societate de Editură Ştiinţifică–Culturală, 1927), 171; Paul Păltănea, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918, second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008), vol. II, 137.

[3] Pacu, Cartea, 330–337; Convenţiunea încheiata între Municipalitatea oraşului Galaţi şi domnii G. B. Crawley şi Fred Power pentru alimentaţiunea oraşului Galaţi cu apa filtrată (Galaţi: Tipografia Aurora, 1899); Tezaur, 307–308 (the statute of the 1910 company); Munteanu–Bârlad, Galaţii, 172–174; Anuarul General al oraşului Galaţi şi jud. Covurlui, edited by Radu Volbură (Brăila: Dunărea, Institut de Arte Grafice, 1931), 54–56; Marius Verbiceanu, Monografia industriei şi comerţului oraşului Galaţi. Studiu economic şi istoric (s.l : s.e., 1938), 39–40; Margareta Guziec, “Însemnări privind modernizarea oraşului Galaţi în secolul al XIX-lea”, Danubius, 11–12 (1985), 143–156; Păltănea, Istoria, II, 137–138, 208.

[4] Tezaur, 188–188, 261–262; Pacu, Cartea, 337–339; Munteanu–Bârlad, Galaţii, 174–176; Anuarul, 1930–1931, 49; Verbiceanu, Monografia, 43–44; Guziec, “Însemnări”, 145–146; Renel. 1893–1993. Un secol de electricitate în judeţul Galaţi (incursiune monografică), edited by Zonel H. Vasiliu (Galaţi: Editura Porto-Franco, 1993), 29–33; Păltănea, Istoria, II, 48, 138, 207.

[5] Acte constitutif et statuts de la société anonyme d’exploitation des tramways de Galatz et de Roumanie (Galaţi: J. Schenk, 1895); Tezaur, 283–285; Anuarul, 1930–1931, 57; Renel, 31–32; Păltănea, Istoria, II, 209; România şi Belgia, dinamica relaţiilor politico-diplomatice, economice şi culturale în perioada formării şi consolidării statului-naţiune, între 1838 şi 1916, edited by Philippe Beke, vol. I (Brussels – Bucharest: Ambasada Belgiei în România, 2013), 160–166.


References

Websites:

http://www.viata-libera.ro/eveniment/11623-canalizare-veche-de-130-de-ani-la-galati

Official site of the local transport operator

http://www.transurbgalati.ro/trecut.php

Official site of the Municipality of Galaţi

http://www.primaria.galati.ro/

Archival sources:

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Primăria oraşului Galaţi (The Municipality of Galaţi City), files starting with 1831.

Bibliography:

Acte constitutif et statuts de la société anonyme d’exploitation des tramways de Galatz et de Roumanie (Galaţi: J. Schenk, 1895).

Anuarul general al oraşului Galaţi şi al jud. Covurlui, 1930–1931 [The General Yearbook of Galaţi City and of the Covurlui District], edited by Radu Volbură (Brăila: Dunărea, 1931).

Convenţiunea încheiata între Municipalitatea oraşului Galaţi şi domnii G. B. Crawley şi Fred Power pentru alimentaţiunea oraşului Galaţi cu apa filtrată [The Convention Concluded between the Municipality of Galaţi and G. B. Crawley and Fred Power for Alimenting the City of Galaţi with Filtered Water) (Galaţi: Tipografia Aurora, 1899).

Duca, A., Reşcanu, G., Memoriul asupra canalisării oraşului Galaţi [Memorandum on the Canalisation of Galaţi City] (Galaţi: s.e., 1879).

Guziec, Margareta, “Însemnări privind modernizarea oraşului Galaţi în secolul al XIX-lea” [Notes regarding the Modernisation of Galaţi City in the 19th Century], Danubius, 11–12 (1985), 143–156.

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Păltănea, Paul, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918 [The History of Galaţi from Its Beginnings to 1918], second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008).

Renel. 1893–1993. Un secol de electricitate în judeţul Galaţi (incursiune monografică) [Renel. 1893–1993. A Century of Electricity in Galaţi County (Monographic Incursion)], edited bu Zonel H. Vasiliu (Galaţi: Editura Porto–Franco, 1993).

Ressu, C., Expunerea situaţiei administrative a comunei Galaţi pe 1889 [The Exposition of the Administrative Situation of Galaţi Commune in 1889] (Galaţi: Tipografia Bălăşeşscu, 1890).

România şi Belgia, dinamica relaţiilor politico-diplomatice, economice şi culturale în perioada formării şi consolidării statului-naţiune, între 1838 şi 1916 [Romania and Belgium, the Dynamics of the Political–Diplomatic, Economic and Cultural Relations in the Period of the Formation and Consolidation of the Nation State, between 1838 and 1916], edited by Philippe Beke, vol. I (Brussels – Bucharest: Ambasada Belgiei în România, 2013).

Tezaur documentar gălăţean [Tresure of Documents on Galaţi], edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988).

Verbiceanu, Marius, Monografia industriei şi comerţului oraşului Galaţi. Studiu economic şi istoric [The Monograph of the Industry and Trade of Galaţi City. An Economic and Historical Study] (s.l : s.e., 1938).


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