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Galatz


Telegraph network    EN

Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN

The first telegraph lines were introduced in the Romanian Principalities in 1854–1855, during the period of the Crimean War, when the two countries were occupied by Austrian troops. Telegraph offices were established at Iaşi, Focşani, Tecuci and Galaţi, and one of the lines, functional in July 1855 connected Iaşi to Galaţi (through Vaslui, Bârlad and Tecuci). In 1857, when the Austrian army withdrew from Moldavia, the service was nationalised and operated by the state. In the same year, the European Commission of the Danube established the telegraph lines Galaţi – Ismail and Galaţi – Sulina. The initial tariff for the correspondence telegraphed from Iaşi to Galaţi was 20 lei for 25 words. For every extra ten words five more lei were charged[1].

By the end of the 19th century, the telegraph–postal office was organised as a first rank branch, with a staff paid annually with a total of 43,020 lei. In 1889–1890 its income was 97,650 lei from domestic telegrams and 70,011 lei from external ones, other amounts coming from extra taxes. Commercial and industrial correspondence occupied almost two thirds of the total activity. In 1889–1890 there were received / sent 73,720 internal telegrams and 43,340 external ones. Adding 5,036 official telegrams, the total number was 122,096 telegrams. Most of the external correspondence was sent to Austria (6,720), Russia (5,560), England (4,332), Ottoman Empire (2,380) and France (2,004), and most telegrams arrived from Russia (4,152), Austria (2,304), France (1,672), Germany (1,616) and England (1,352). As the number of telegrams sent / received in Romania was about 1.4 million a year, the telegraphic office in Galaţi contributed with the twelfth part of the total, but in terms of incomes it charged the eighth part of the total incomes at a national level[2].

By the mid 1880s a telephone line was established between the fire fighters’ office, the main police station and the observation tower settled in the belfry of a local church. In 1886 there were operational five telephone offices, and the use of these devices greatly increased both for public institutions and for private customers. In 1911 the telephone network in the county of Covurlui covered 610 kilometres of wires[3].

Table 4.2.5.2_1

Telegraphic machines, network, tools, and offices (1873–1913)[4]

Year

Network – used lines (km)

Telegraphic wires (km)

Printing machines

Telegraph offices

1873

3,420

6,089

494

81

1874

3,737

6,632

-

83

1875

3,821

6,842

390

90

1876

3,757

6,993

417

91

1877

3,954

7,928

424

101

1878

4,368

8,733

476

97

1880

4,484

9,039

500

104

1881

4,641

9,450

-

108

1882

4,747

9,698

-

111

1883

4,750

10,146

-

-

1884

5,021

10,747

-

-

1885

5,093

10,841

-

250

1886

5,232

11,341

-

317

1887

5,397

11,911

266

321

1888

5,495

12,424

230

323

1889

5,632

12,809

207

353

1890

5,771

12,963

218

381

1891

5,798

13,334

222

395

1892

5,871

14,543

220

-

1893

6,047

14,900

228

-

1894

6,444

14,737

206

-

1895

6,832

16,211

226

-

1896

6,874

16,343

226

-

1897

6,903

16,592

302

-

1898

6,850

17,590

285

-

1899

6,931

17,860

287

-

1900

6,972

18,023

240

-

1901

6,995

18,110

242

-

1902

6,964

18,194

241

-

1903

7,012

18,388

242

-

1904

7,013

15,511

250

-

1905

7,284

19,426

260

-

1906

7,679

20,086

182

-

1907

7,660

21,208

145

-

1908

7,762

21,787

-

-

1909

7,651

19,311

-

-

1910

7,321

20,841

-

-

1911

7,706

21,661

-

-

1912

8,332

24,073

-

-

1913

9,062

25,308

-

-

           

Table 4.2.5.2_2

Domestic and international telegrams, 1870–1915 (thousand units)[5]

Year

Sent domestic telegrams

Sent international telegrams

Received international telegrams

1870

433

74

72

1871

479

76

73

1872

651

87

97

1873

675

95

90

1874

712

93

92

1875

765

96

95

1876

608

92

94

1877

668

130

124

1878

683

189

192

1879

661

118

124

1880

686

123

130

1881

828

150

153

1882

877

160

157

1883

897

158

164

1884

885

146

149

1885

917

150

152

1886

915

140

136

1887

933

142

140

1888

976

177

136

1889

948

178

158

1890

965

183

161

1891

1,086

229

209

1892

1,092

238

215

1893

1,146

225

226

1894

1,361

238

189

1895

1,642

268

227

1896

1,707

263

226

1897

1,540

287

255

1898

1,779

331

273

1899

1,589

254

247

1900

1,455

272

240

1901

1,569

306

276

1902

1,687

338

313

1903

1,632

339

334

1904

1,827

285

279

1905

1,919

382

366

1906

2,055

468

408

1907

2,028

415

398

1908

2,033

388

395

1909

2,023

403

390

1910

2,249

492

462

1911

2,160

602

619

1912

2,368

587

624

1913

2,631

596

599

1914

2,634

591

550

1915

2,676

401

388

Table 4.2.5.2_3

Telephone devices, stations and circuits, 1894–1913[6]

Year

Telephone stations

Telephone circuits

Offices

Cabins

Posts

Urban

Interurban

number

number

number

km

km

1894

3

10

177

404

1,599

1895

3

11

326

1,298

2,376

1896

10

20

672

1,700

2,445

1897

10

20

2,627

2,365

3,312

1898

41

173

2,737

2,554

5,263

1899

52

306

2,883

3,634

8,078

1900

157

1,010

1,303

3,045

10,981

1901

370

1,425

2,391

4,250

16,492

1902

494

1,965

3,030

5,536

21,186

1903

128

2,682

3,127

6,075

25,906

1904

158

2,738

3,688

7,669

27,413

1905

198

2,897

4,410

9,190

28,921

1906

805

347

8,005

10,562

31,369

1907

805

347

8,828

12,094

31,675

1908

770

386

10,134

13,552

32,912

1909

838

3,018

11,170

16,213

41,634

1910

868

3,026

15,422

17,114

43,019

1911

945

3,212

16,226

25,570

42,869

1912

919

3,220

16,130

33,984

51,881

1913

1,108

3,304

17,979

39,086

55,899

Table 4.2.5.2_4

Telephone calls, by categories, 1894–1914[7]

Year

Total

Urban

Inter­urban

1894

55

55

-

1895

135

135

-

1896

445

444

1

1897

774

772

2

1898

967

883

84

1899

1,936

1,820

116

1900

1,527

1,324

203

1901

4,036

3,757

279

1902

2,025

1,609

416

1903

2,757

2,294

463

1904

2,521

2,216

305

1905

3,229

2,691

538

1906

4,885

4,227

658

1907

9,412

8,683

729

1908

6,683

5,835

848

1909

12,353

11,135

1,218

1910

13,544

12,257

1,287

1911

17,893

16,402

1,491

1912

17,761

16,410

1,351

1913

22,338

20,894

1,444

1914

26,050

24,360

1,690

 


[1] Paul Păltănea, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918, second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008), vol. II, 44–45; details in Leonid Boicu, “Introducerea telegrafiei în Moldova (Contribuţii la cunoaşterea ocupaţiei austriece din 1854–1857 a Principatelor Române)”, Studii şi cercetări ştiinţifice, Iaşi, Istorie 8:2 (1957), 279–305 and Tezaur documentar gălăţean, edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988), 144–146.

[2] Moise N. Pacu, Cartea judeţului Covurluiu. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice, (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891), 272–276; other details in Păltănea, Istoria, II, 209.

[3] Pacu, Cartea, 278; D. Hagi Anton, Expunerea situaţiunei judeţului Covurlui prezentată Consiliului Judeţian la deschiderea sesiunei ordinare de la 15 octombrie 1911 (Galaţi: Stabilimentul de Arte Grafice “Moldova”, 1911), 55–56; Păltănea, Istoria, II, 209.

[4] Victor Axenciuc, Evoluţia economică a României. Cercetări statistico-istorice, 1859–1947, vol. I, Industria (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 1992), 366–367 (Table 337: Telegraphic machines, network, tools and offices, during the period 1873–1938).

[5] Ibid., 367–368 (Table 338: Domestic and international telegrams, during the period 1870–1938, in thousand units).

[6] Ibid., 374–375 (Table 343: Telephone devices, stations and circuits, during the period 1894–1913).

[7] Ibid., 375 (Table 344: Phone calls, by categories, during the period 1894–1914).


References

Websites:

Archival sources:

Serviciul Judeţean Galaţi al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Galaţi Branch), Primăria oraşului Galaţi (The Municipality of Galaţi), files starting with 1831.

Bibliography:

Axenciuc, Victor, Evoluţia economică a României. Cercetări statistico–istorice, 1859–1947, vol. I, Industria [Romania’s Economic Evolution. Statistical–Historical Researches, 1859–1947, vol. I, The Industry] (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 1992).

Boicu, Leonid, “Introducerea telegrafiei în Moldova (Contribuţii la cunoaşterea ocupaţiei austriece din 1854–1857 a Principatelor Române)” [The Introduction of Telegraphy in Moldavia (Contributions to the Knowing of the Austrian Occupation of the Romanian Principalities (1854–1857)], Studii şi cercetări ştiinţifice, Iaşi, Istorie 8:2 (1957), 279–305.

Enciclopedia României, vol. IV, Economia naţională. Circulaţie, distribuţie şi consum [Romania’s Encyclopedia, vol. IV, The National Economy. Circulation, Distribution and Consumption], edited by Dimitrie Gusti at alii(Bucharest: Imprimeria Naţională, 1943).

Hagi Anton, D., Expunerea situaţiunei judeţului Covurlui prezentată Consiliului Judeţian la deschiderea sesiunei ordinare de la 15 octombrie 1911 [The Exposition of the Situation of Covurlui County Presented to the County Council at the Opening of the Ordinary Session of 15 October 1911] (Galaţi: Stabilimentul de Arte Grafice “Moldova”, 1911).

Pacu, Moise N., Cartea Judeţului Covurlui. Note geografice, istorice şi în deosebi statistice [The Book of Covurlui County. Geographical, Historical and Mainly Statistical Notes] (Bucharest: Stabilimentul Grafic I. V. Socecu, 1891).

Păltănea, Paul, Istoria oraşului Galaţi de la origini până la 1918 [The History of Galaţi from Its Beginnings to 1918], second edition, edited by Eugen Drăgoi (Galaţi: Editura Partener, 2008).

Tezaur documentar gălăţean [Tresure of Documents on Galaţi], edited by Cezar Bejan, Alexandru Duţă, Stelian Iordache, Viorica Solomon (Bucharest: Direcţia Generală a Arhivelor Statului, 1988).


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