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Constantza


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The colony of Tomis was founded in the 7th century BC by the ancient Greeks. It prospered during the following centuries, and continued to thrive after the Roman conquest of the area in the first century BC. Tomis was famous as the exile place of Ovid, where the poet wrote his Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto. Tomis was later renamed Constantiana in honour of Constantia, the half-sister of Emperor Constantine the Great, and was often besieged during the invasions of the migratory peoples that headed towards the Roman Empire in the late ancient period. It became part of the Bulgarian Empire, then the area was organised as an independent principality, to be conquered by the Hospodar of Wallachia in late 14th century. The entire province of Dobrudja (Dobrogea) was conquered by the Ottoman about 1416 and became part of the Ottoman Empire for about four centuries and a half.

The geographical position of Constanţa made it a constant victim in the Russian–Ottoman wars of the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1780, according to the information of a Polish agent (W. Czrzanowski), Constanţa was “one of the most important ports, where Greek and Turkish vessels call at”. Thus, although its harbour was completely ruined, several commercial ships belonging to Ottoman Greeks traded there [1]. A quarter century later, by 1804, sources refer to ships carrying olives and olive oil to Constanţa, where the existence of a mercantile association was also mentioned [2]. During the Russian–Ottoman war of 1806–1812 Constanţa was again damaged. In August 1809 a Cossack detachment led by General Plotov reached Constanţa, and the Ottoman military commander-in-chief surrendered the town with its fortifications, ammunitions and provisions in exchange for the permission to leave to Varna together with the 2,000 local inhabitants. The town was poorly fortified (with a wall and a ditch) and it was later looted and burnt down [3].

Constanţa was besieged once more in 1828, when Helmuth von Moltke depicted the town as “surrounded from three parts by the sea and steep, 100 feet high rocks, being is only accessible from the north […] This harbour has only seven feet of water and is completely exposed to the southerly winds”. Maritime trade was limited, as its harbour did not allow a safe traffic. Population amounted to about 2,000 people, and the Ottomans had fortified the town towards the mainland with three bulwarks [4]. After its occupation, Constanţa was intensely used by the Russian fleet as a supply base for the land troops fighting in the Balkans [5].

By the early 1830s, sailing guides mentioned that ships could anchor in a certain area of the harbour, where the water was about 12–17 feet deep. They could also remain in the roadstead, where conditions were considered adequate. However, commercial exchanges were “almost inexistent”. The importance of the town grew with the development of the Danubian ports of Brăila and Galaţi, when the difficulties of navigation through the Sulina mouth of the river made interested commercial circles analyse the opportunity of building a canal or a railway between the Danube and the Black Sea. At the same time, in 1839, the Austrian Steam Navigation Company introduced a coach between Cernavodă and Constanţa, thus shortening with two days the journey from Vienna to Constantinople. The project for the construction of a canal or a railway was intensely debated during this period, with many engineers, economists, diplomats and journalists referring to its advantages or hindrances. After a visit to Constanţa in 1839, the British consul to Bucharest, Robert Gilmore Colquhoun, mentioned that the harbour had only about 5–6 feet of water, as the eastern gales and the destruction of the old dyke favoured the accumulation of sand. Only 12–15 small ships could anchor there, but with relatively easy technical works it could host 60 ships of 150–200 tons [6].

During the 1840s, the town had about 40 dwellings, concentrated in its peninsular part. A foreign traveller described Constanţa in 1843 as a poor village with hovels similar to beavers’ lodges, with ragged women and children, no more than 150 inhabitants in total. A few years later, Ion Ionescu de la Brad [7] referred to the difficult state of the harbour, which provided no shelter to ships, especially during the cold season. “At Custendje only 8–10 ships a year are loaded with wheat and barley; however, when harvests are rich, their number increases to 25–30 [8].

The town played an important role during the Crimean War, in the context of the western troops’ landing in the Balkans. In July – August 1854 thousands of allied soldiers died at Constanţa of cholera [9]. A year later two French military missions were quartered there: the first, led by Engineer Charles Lalanne, was to build a road across Dobrudja, useful for provisioning the allied soldiers; the second, led by Intendent Eugene Blondeau, was to requisition hay from the area. According to Camille Allard, the physician of the technical mission [10], “the best port in Dobrudja is Küstendge, with its simple but well maintained roadstead, which is only open to the southern wind and which would resemble that of Balchich, if it had the same depth. A part of the old dyke still exists; with a slight effort a safe shelter could be obtained for ships of 300–400 tons”. The officer also proposed the completion of port works, which could turn Constanţa into an important commercial entrepot in the Black Sea [11].

By 1855 the idea of building a canal or a railway between the Danube and Constanţa returned to the attention of western cabinets and investors. The British entrepreneur Thomas Forester referred to the advantages of Constanţa’s position, as its advanced promontory formed a natural shelter for a large area, which “by dredging and delimitation can be turned with moderate expense into a safe and large harbour, capable to receive large ships” [12]. Initially the Porte agreed to the construction of a canal, but in 1857 granted to a British consortium, “The Danube and Black Sea Railway and Küstendge Harbour Company Ltd” (DBSR), the right to build a railway between Cernavodă and Constanţa. The company, with a capital of 300,000 sterling pounds, received a concession for 99 years from the day the railway was operational. Necessary land was given free of charge if state propriety and by indemnity if private property; the investors enjoyed customs and fiscal privileges and immunities for all materials used, facilities extended to ten years for all imports necessary for operating the railway. The same agreement regulated the modernisation of the harbour of Constanţa. By “the convention relative to the port of Kustendge”, the Ottoman Government granted DBSR the right to build on its own expense, risk and danger the harbour with all its facilities, quays, magazines etc., according to plans and projects that were to be presented to the Porte. Necessary port works were to be commonly agreed by engineers appointed by the Ottomans and by those employed by DBSR. The harbour was also leased to the company for a term of 99 years [13].

The construction of the Cernavodă – Constanţa railway, on a length of 64.675 km, started in 1858 and was completed two years later. The inauguration took place on 22 September / 4 October 1860 (new style). Regarding the port works, the technical project mentioned two dykes, the seawall measuring 836 meters. It was to create a basin and a berthing space with wooden quays on 200 meters, allowing the mooring of about 400 ships. Grain was stored in stone and wooden magazines, as well as in a storied wall magazine built in 1864 [14]. However, works proved difficult and expensive, so that by 1862 the seawall only measured 237 meters [15]. In 1860, in the south eastern corner of the peninsula, Artin Aslan completed a lighthouse, known as the “Genoese lighthouse”. During the next years, the Ottoman authorities and the DBSR leadership had several disputes regarding the completion of the proposed engineering works, but also concerning the development and taxation of maritime trade at Constanţa [16].

Following complicated negotiations a new convention was concluded on 10 October 1870 between the Porte and DBSR. The Ottomans paid back the leasers the amount of 112,761 sterling pounds, and ships no longer had to pay taxes for entering the harbour. The British company preserved the right to freely use the quays, magazines, etc. in exchange for doing the necessary maintenance works in the harbour and for operating the lighthouse. The company also undertook to prolong the southern dyke according to approved plans. However, DBSR did not hurry to complete these works, and until 1876 it only built 53 more meters of the seawall, whose total length was now 290 meters. The works were insufficient, and the roadstead remained exposed to the strong gales of the Black Sea [17].

Although it did not work at full capacity, the harbour witnessed a significant development during these decades. In 1863 a total of 421 ships loaded cargoes at Constanţa, among which 131 under Austrian flag, 97 British and Ottoman, 17 Italian. In 1864 it exported about 2.5 million hectolitres of grain. For 1876 statistical data mention 317 ships and 237 steamers. By flag, the largest numbers of ships were Ottoman (180), Greek (84 sailing ships and 11 steamers) and British (74 steamers and 10 sailing ships) [18].

The town also greatly developed following the British investment. Constanţa consisted of the peninsular part, where local Ottoman institutions were quartered. There were five neighbourhoods (Turkish, Greek, Jewish, Armenian, and British). The British district was placed on the Black Sea coast, and had stone buildings serving as residences for staff and as offices for the company’s administration [19]. Population increased to about 4,000 people, and modernisation was also visible in the introduction of public lighting with petroleum lamps and the organisation of a local police force.

The situation of Constanţa on the eve of the Russian–Ottoman war of 1877–1878 is described by Baron Willem d’Hogguer. The town had a heterogeneous population of about 4,000 people (Greeks, Turks, Tartars, Bulgarians, Romanians, etc.). The harbour was in a poor state, as its seawall was badly built. The depth of the sea (17–18 feet) was insufficient, and large steamers could not berth directly at quays and were forced to complete their cargo in the roadstead, facing dangerous weather conditions. Grain magazines were not sufficient in good agricultural years. Main imports consisted of cotton (England), footwear and clothing (Austria), iron (England and Austria), colonial goods, wine and alcohol (Constantinople), candles, flour and petroleum (America). Besides grain, exports consisted of animals, wool, hides, cheese, etc. Shipping companies such as Messageries Maritimes, Lloyd and Florio operated at Constanţa, and Britain, Belgium, Austria and France had consular representatives in the town.

In July 1877 the Ottoman army and a part of the population left the town, which was readily occupied by the Russian troops. They paid a special attention to defending the harbour, both by sea and by land, and it resisted an Ottoman naval attack [20].

Constanţa remained under Russian control until late 1878, when, according to the provisions of the Berlin Treaty, Romania took possession of the province of Dobrudja. In November 1878 the Romanian officials got to Constanţa and began to impose the new administration.


[1] M. D. Ionescu, Cercetări asupra oraşului Constanţa. Geografie şi istorie (Bucharest: Tipografia şi Fonderia de litere Thoma Basilescu, 1897), 51; Valentin Ciorbea, Portul Constanţa de la antichitate la mileniul III (Constanţa: Europolis, 1994), 61.
[2] Ciorbea, Portul, 61.
[3] Ionescu, Cercetări, 52; Ciorbea, Portul, 62.
[3]Ionescu, Cercetări, 53–54; Ciorbea, Portul, 62.
[4] Ciorbea, Portul, 63.
[5] Ibid., 63–64.
[6] Ionescu, Cercetări, 55–56.
[7] Ciorbea, Portul, 66.
[8] Ionescu, Cercetări, 58–59.
[9] Ionescu, Cercetări, 60–63;
[10] Ciorbea, Portul, 68–69.
[11] Ciorbea, Portul, 70–71.
[12] Ibid., 71–73
[13] Ibid., 74; details for Constanţa during this period in Andreea Atanasiu, “Dobrogea sub administraţie otomană. Constanţa şi Tulcea – studiu de caz”, in vol. Dobrogea 1878–2008. Orizonturi deschise de mandatul european, edited by Valentin Ciorbea (Constanţa: Ex Ponto, 2008), 129–133.
[14] Ciorbea, Portul, 75.
[15] Ibid., 76.
[16] Ibid., 76–77.
[17] Ibid., 77.
[18] Ibid., 79–80.
[19] Ionescu, Cercetări, 67.
[20] Ciorbea, Portul, 80–81.


References

Atanasiu, Andreea, “Dobrogea sub administraţie otomană. Constanţa şi Tulcea – studiu de caz” [Dodrudja under Ottoman Administration. Constanţa and Tulcea – Case Study”, in vol. Dobrogea 1878–2008. Orizonturi deschise de mandatul european [Dobrudja 1878–2008. Open Horizons by the European Mandate], edited by Valentin Ciorbea (Constanţa: Ex Ponto, 2008), 125–138.

Ciorbea, Valentin, Portul Constanţa de la antichitate la mileniul III [Constanţa Harbour from the Antiquity to the Third Millennium] (Constanţa: Europolis, 1994).

Ionescu, M. D., Cercetări asupra oraşului Constanţa. Geografie şi istorie [Researches on the City of Constanţa. Geography and History] (Bucharest: Tipografia şi Fonderia de Litere Thoma Basilescu, 1897).

Rădulescu, Adrian, Lascu, Stoica, Haşotti, Puiu, Ghid de oraş. Constanţa [City Guidebook. Constanţa] (Bucharest: Sport Turism, 1985).

 



Bibliography

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A geographical, statistical, and commercial account of the Russian ports of the Black Sea, the Sea of Asoph and the Danube: also an official report of the European commerce of Russia in 1835, from the German. with map, London: A. Schloss and P. Richardson, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book gives geographical, statistical and commercial data around the cities of the Danube, the Black Sea and the Azov Sea/ Το βιβλίο δίνει γεωγραφικά, στατιστικά και εμπορικά στοιχεία γύρω από τις πόλεις του Δούναβη, της Μαύρης και της Αζοφικής θάλασσας.

Admiralty hydrogr, The Black sea pilot, 3rd ed., London: J. D. Potter, 1884

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς. 

Admiralty hydrogr, The Black sea pilot, 3rd ed., London: J. D. Potter, 1890

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Catherine, Empress of Russia, The grand instructions to the Commissioners Appointed to Frame a New Code of Laws for the Russian, London: Printed for T. Jefferys, 1768

Odessa  Nikolayev  Kherson  Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  
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The book contains essays by Empress Catherine for new institutions and rules on trade, including Russia as a rising economic and political power/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει δοκίμια της Αυτοκράτειρας Αικατερίνης για τους νέους θεσμούς και κανόνες στο εμπόριο, περιλαμβάνοντας τη Ρωσία ως ανερχόμενη οικονομική και πολιτική δύναμη. 

Dearborn, Henry A. S., A memoir on the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea and the trade and maritime geography of Turkey and Egypt, vol. I - II, Boston: Wells and Lilly, 1819

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book mentions the history and topography of the countries of the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος περιγράφει το εμπόριο και τη ναυσιπλοία των της Μαύρης θάλασσας.

Eardley-Wilmot, Sydney Marow, Life of Vice-Admiral Edmund, lord Lyons: With an account of naval operations in the Black Sea and Sea of Azoff, 1854-56, London: Sampson Low, Marston and Co., 1898

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The book contains descriptions of Vice Admiral Lord Lyon during travel carried out almost throughout the world during the early and mid of the 19th century/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει τις περιγραφές του αντιναυάρχου λόρδου Lyon κατά τα ταξίδια που πραγματοποίησε σχεδόν σε ολόκληρο τον κόσμο κατά τις αρχές και τα μέσα του 19ου αιώνα. 

Eton, William, A Concise account of the commerce and navigation of the Black Sea: from recent and authentic information, London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1805

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book-pilot is referred to the trade and navigation of the coasts of the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος αναφέρεται στο εμπόριο και τη ναυσιπλοία των ακτών της Μαύρης θάλασσας.

Geddie, John, The Russian empire: its rise and progress: with a description of the country, its history, government, and peoples, and an account of the latest conquests in central Asia, London: T. Nelson, 1885

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Nezhin  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The article refers to the economic and political consolidation of the Russian Empire through trade and conquest in the regions of Central Asia and the Caspian Sea/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στην οικονομική και πολιτική εδραίωση της Ρωσικής Αυτοκρατορίας μέσα από το εμπόριο αλλά και την κατάκτηση περιοχών στην Κεντρική Ασία και την Κασπία θάλασσα. 

Hajnal, Henry, The Danube as waterway, Springer pdf, http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-015-2736-1/page/1 New window

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The present study addresses the institutional evolution of the Danube river before and after the creation of the European Danube Commission as well as the role of the Danube as a major waterway under the impact of the implementation of the technology of steam/ Το άρθρο αναφέρεται στο ρόλο του Δούναβη ως εμπορικού δρόμου.

Methodieva-Bogomilova, Milena, Reform, politics and culture among the Muslims in Bulgaria, 1878-1908, vol. I, Princeton University, 2010

Galatz  Constantza  Braila  
Culture and Communities  
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The book refers  the history and culture of Muslims in Bulgaria/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στην ιστορία και την κουλτούρα των Μουσουλμάνων της Βουλγαρίας. 

Özveren, Y. Eyüp. 1997. “A Framework for the Study of the Black Sea World, 1789-1915”. Review (fernand Braudel Center) 20 (1). Research Foundation of SUNY: 77–113. http://www.jstor.org/stable/40241390.

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Shipping  Economy and Infrastructure  Culture and Communities  Administration  
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Studies of the nineteenth-century Ottoman and Russian Empires as well as of the numerous nation-states that came into existence around the Black Sea have mostly been pursued separately. This article attempts to offer an alternative framework of analysis for the study of the Black Sea world during the nineteenth century. It starts off from Femand Braudel's approach to the sixteenth-century Mediterranean world in order to discuss whether and to what extent the Black Sea region could also be conceived as a world. Not only structural similarities but also historically-specific circumstances are emphasized for supporting the parallel drawn between the sixteenth-century Mediterranean and the nineteenth-century Black Sea. A number of further intellectual questions are raised in order to demonstrate that a holistic perspective has much to offer for re-directing academic research into more promising problem areas.

Peyssonel, M. de, Traité sur le commerce de la Mer Noire, vol. I-II, A Paris: Chez Cuchet ..., 1787

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book refers to trade in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρεται στο εμπόριο της Μαύρης θάλασσας

Reuilly, Jean, baron de, Voyage en Crimée et sur les bords de la Mer Noire, pendant l'année 1803; suivi d'un mémoire sur le commerce de cette mer, et de notes sur les principaux ports commerçans.... Paris: Bossange, Masson et Besson, 1806

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book lists the records of trips of a baron in  Crimea and the Black Sea in 1803 together with information on trade and the economy/ Το βιβλίο αναφέρει τις καταγραφές των ταξιδιών ενός βαρόνου στην Κριμαία και στη Μαύρη θάλασσα το 1803 μαζί με πληροφορίες για το εμπόριο και την οικονομία.

Saint-Joseph, Anthoine De - Ignace, Antoine, Essai historique sur le commerce et la navigation de la Mer-Noire: ou Voyages et entreprises pour etablir des rapports commerciaux et maritimes entre les ports de la Mer-Noire et ceux de la Mediterranee, Paris: H. Agasse, 1805

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The book contains essays on trade and shipping in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο περιέχει δοκίμια για το εμπόριο και τη ναυτιλία στη Μαύρη θάλασσα.

Taitbout de Marigny, Edouard, chevalier, Three voyages in the Black Sea to the coast of Circassia: including descriptions of the ports, and the importance of their trade: with sketches of the manners, customs, religion, London: J. Murray, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  
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Travellers essays/ Περιηγητικά κείμενα

Taitbout de Marigny, Edouard., Pilote de la Mer Noire de la Mer d'Azov: extrait de l'hydrographie de la Mer Noire et de la Mer d' Azov, comparée à celles de l'antiquité et du Moyen Age du même auteur, Constantinople: Koromila et Paspalli, 1850

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Shipping  
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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Terristori, Conte, A Geographical, statistical and commercial account of the Russian ports of the Black Sea, the Sea of Asoph and the Danube: also an official report of the European commerce of Russia in 1835, London: A. Schloss, foreign book and print seller, 1837

Varna  Trabzon  Theodosia  Taganrog  Sinop  Sevastopol  Samsun  Rostov on Don  Odessa  Novorossiysk  Nikolayev  Mariupol  Kherson  Kerch  Istanbul/Constantinople  Giresun  Galatz  Evpatoria  Constantza  Burgas  Braila  Berdyansk  Batoum  
Urban Landscape - Geography  Economy and Infrastructure  
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The article is a commercial and geographic reference to the cities-ports of the Black Sea/ Το άρθρο αποτελεί εμπορική και γεωγραφική αναφορά στις πόλεις-λιμάνια της Μαύρης θάλασσας. 

United States, Black Sea pilot, the Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea and Sea of Azov, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1927

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This book is a navigation pilot addressed to seafarers/ Το βιβλίο πιλότος ναυσιπλοΐας παρέχει οδηγίες ναυσιπλοΐας και απευθύνεται στους ναυτικούς.  

Wilkinson, Charles, An account of the navigation and commerce of the Black Sea, London: W. Wilson, 1807

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Urban Landscape - Geography  
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The book-pilot refers to navigation in the Black Sea/ Το βιβλίο-πιλότος αναφέρεται στη ναυσιπλοία της Μαύρης θάλασσας 

Γεωργιτσογιάννη, Ευαγγελία Ν., Παναγής Α. Χαρακόπος (1835-1911). Η ζωή και το έργο του, Νέα Σύνορα, Αθήνα 2000 

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Το παρόν βιβλίο αφορά τη ζωή και τις οικονομικές, πολιτικές και κοινωνικές δραστηριότητες του Παναγή Χαροκόπου (Κεφαλλονιά 1835-Αθήνα 1911), ο οποίος μετανάστευσε σε νεαρή ηλικία στη Ρουμανία, όπου απέκτησε μεγάλη περιουσία από το εμπόριο σιτηρών και την καλλιέργεια μεγάλων κτημάτων τα οποία ενοικίαζε. Το 1899 εγκαταστάθηκε στην Αθήνα. Αρχισε να ασχολείται με τα τσιφλίκια του στη Θεσσαλία και με χρηματοοικονομικές δραστηριότητες. Στα τέλη της ζωής του αναμείχθηκε στην πολιτική και εξελέγη βουλευτής με το Κόμμα των Φιλελευθέρων του Ελ. Βενιζέλου το 1910.
Συνέβαλε στον εκσυγχρονισμό της γεωργίας στη Ρουμανία και στην Ελλάδα. Δραστηριοποιήθηκε, επίσης, για την ανάπτυξη της βιοτεχνίας/βιομηχανίας στην Ελλάδα και συμμετείχε ενεργά στη διαμόρφωση του χρηματιστικού-τραπεζικού κλάδου της χώρας κατά την πρώτη δεκαετία του 20ού αιώνα. Ανέπτυξε δε πλούσια κοινωφελή δραστηριότητα, ευεργετώντας τόσο την Ελλάδα όσο και τη Ρουμανία.

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