History of banks
Author: ARDELEANU KONSTANTIN
The Romanian National Bank was founded in 1880 as a bank of discount and circulation. It had a branch at Constanţa since 1894, its main operations being the discount and cashing of trade effects, advances for titles guaranteed by the state, keeping deposits of movable values, transfers and deposits in current account. The average movement of the commercial discount in 1899–1900 was 3.3 million lei .
The General Bank of Romania, with a capital of 10 million lei, was founded in 1897 for financial and banking operations, including operations of deposit, as well as trade commissions and advances. The headquarters were in Bucharest and it had a branch at Constanţa .
The Agricultural Bank, with a capital of 12 million lei, was an anonymous society aiming to support the large land owners and lessees by short term loans, given with or without a warranty in goods, cattle or agricultural tools. Its main headquarters were in Bucharest and it had a branch in Constanţa (1894) .
The Agricultural Credit was an institution established in 1882 and reorganised thereafter. Its headquarters were in Bucharest and it had a branch in Constanţa since 1883. It had a capital of 20 million lei, given by the state, which agricultural investors or industrialists could borrow for their works .
The Urban Landed Credits from Bucharest and Iaşi gave loans for urban buildings, and many constructions from Constanţa were mortgaged to these institutions .
The House of Depositions, Consignments and Economy also had a branch at Constanţa .
The Discount Bank from Constanţa was established in July 1899, with a capital of 400,000 lei, divided into 4,000 shares. Its operations were: selling and buying public effects, giving loans for public effects, taking part in all kinds of titles, currency exchanges, discounted polices, loans with warranties, advances in current account on deposits of titles or commercial effects, loans for merchandise, buying buildings, issuing obligations on long term etc. Its balance was, at the end of 1900, 627.449 lei . It was also called the Shepherds’ Bank .
Marmorosch Blank & Co. Bank was established in 1884, and reorganised in 1904 as an anonymous society with a capital of 8 million lei. It had an agency at Constanţa in early 20th century .
The Romanian Commercial Bank was founded in 1907 with a capital of 12 million lei. It had a branch at Constanţa .
The Bank of the Romanian Ploughman was founded at Constanţa with a capital of 200,000 lei .
In 1896 there were at Constanţa branches of the National Bank (1894), the Agricultural Bank (1894) and the Agricultural Credit (1883) . In 1913 there were in Dobrudja 12 local banks, with a capital of 4,016,931 lei. At Constanţa there were six commercial banks, with a capital of 1,751,775 lei .
 M. D. Ionescu, Dobrogia în pragul veacului al XX-lea. Geografia matematică, fisică, politică, economică şi militară (Bucharest: Ateliere Grafice I. V. Socec, 1904), 901.
Ibid., 901–902; Toma Dragomirescu, Istoricul băncilor din România şi al tuturor instituţiunilor de credit şi societăţi de asigurări, urmat de o statistică generală (Bucharest: Speranţa, Institut de Arte Grafice, 1908), 18.
 Ionescu, Dobrogia, 902.
 Dragomirescu, Istoricul, 39; Its statute in “Buletinul Camerei de Comerciu şi Industrie, Circ. X Constanţa”, 10 (July 1899), 2–3; details also in O. Văleanu, “Instituțiunile de credit în Dobrogea”, in vol. 1878–1928. Dobrogea. Cincizeci de ani de vieața românească (București: Cultura Națională, 1928), 570.
 Dragomirescu, Istoricul, 14–16.
Ibid., 36; its statute in “Buletinul Camerei de Comerciu şi Industrie, Circ. X Constanţa”, 18 (February 1908), 187–188.
 Ionescu, Cercetări asupra oraşului Constanţa. Geografie şi istorie (Bucharest: Tipografia şi Fonderia de litere Thoma Basilescu, 1897), 58.
 Hârjescu, “Societăţile pe acţiuni în Dobrogea”, in vol. 1878–1928. Dobrogea. Cincizeci de ani de vieața românească (București: Cultura Națională, 1928), 565.
Serviciul Judeţean Constanţa al Arhivelor Naţionale (The National Archives, Constanţa Branch), Primăria municipiului Constanţa (The Municipality of Constanţa), files starting with 1878.
Anuarul Statistic al României, 1915–1916 [The Statistical Yearbook of Romania, 1915–1916] (Bucharest: Tipografia Regală F. Göbl Fii, 1919).
Axenciuc, Victor, Evoluţia economică a României. Cercetări statistico–istorice, 1859–1947, vol. III, Monedă – Credit – Comerţ – Finanţe publice [Romania’s Economic Evolution. Statistical–Historical Researches, 1859–1947, vol. III, Currency – Credit – Trade – Public Finance] (Bucharest: Editura Academiei Române, 2000).
Băicoianu, C. I., Istoria politicei noastre monetara şi a Băncii naţionale, 1880–1914 [The History of Our Monetary Policy and of the National Bank, 1880–1914], (Bucharest, Imprimeria Naţională, 1932).
Casias, B., Instituţiunile de credit. Rolul şi importanţa lor. Imprumutul naţional [The Credit Institutions. Their Role and Importance. The National Loan] (Bucharest: Tip. Idealul, 1918).
Dragomirescu, Toma, Istoricul băncilor din România şi al tuturor instituţiunilor de credit şi societăţi de asigurări, urmat de o statistică generală [The History of Banks in Romania and of All Credits Institutions and Insurance Companies, Followed by a General Statistics] (Bucharest: Speranţa, Institut de Arte Grafice, 1908).
Ionescu, M. D., Cercetări asupra oraşului Constanţa. Geografie şi istorie [Researches on the City of Constanţa. Geography and History] (Bucharest: Tipografia şi Fonderia de Litere Thoma Basilescu, 1897).
Ionescu, M. D., Dobrogia în pragul veacului al XX-lea. Geografia matematică, fisică, politică, economică şi militară [Dobrudja at the Beginning of the 20th Century] (Bucharest: Ateliere Grafice I. V. Socec, 1904).
Slăvescu, V., Băncile comerciale mijlocii din România [The Middle Commercial Banks in Romania] (Bucharest: Atelierele Grafice Universala, 1915).
Văleanu, O., “Instituțiunile de credit în Dobrogea” [Credit Institutions in Dobrudja], in vol. 1878–1928. Dobrogea. Cincizeci de ani de vieața românească [Dobrudja. Fifty Years of Romanian Life] (București: Cultura Națională, 1928).